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Anburin, the author of this poem, was the son of 
Caw, lord of Owm Oawlwyd, or CowUwg, a region 
in the North, which, as we learn from a Life of 
Gildas in the monastery of Fleury published by 
Johannes a Bosco, comprehended Arecluta or Strath 
Clyde.* Several of his brothers seem to have emi- 
grated from Prydyn in company with their father 
before the battle of Cattraeth, and, under the royal 
protection of Maelgwn Gwyncdd, to have settled in 
Wales, where they professed religious lives, and 
became founders of churches. He himself, however, 
remained behind, and having been initiated into the 
mysteries of Bardism, formed an intimate acquaint- 
ance with Owen, Cian, Llywarch Hen, and Taliesin, 
sill likewise disciples of the Awen. By the rules of 

* Perhspt Cawlwyd ii a compound of Caw Clwyd, that b, the Clyde of Caw. 


his order a Bard was not permitted ordinarily to 
bear arms,^and though the exceptional case, in which 
he might act differently, may be said to have arisen 
from ^Hhe lawlessness and depredationt^^ of the 
Saxons, Anourin does not appoar to have been pro- 
sent at Oattraeth in any other capacity than that 
of a herald Bard. Besides the absence of any inti- 
mation to the contrary, we think the passages where 
he compares Owen to himself, and where he makes 
proposals at the conference, and above all where ho 
attributes his safety to his "gwonwawd,'^ conclu- 
sive on the subject. His heraldic character would 
be recognised by all nations, according to the uni- 
versal law of warfare, whereas it is very impro- 
bable that any poetic effusion which he might 
have delivered, could have influence upon a people 
whose language differed so materially from his 

The Gododin was evidently composed when the 
various occurrences that it records were as yet 
fresh in the author''s mind and recollection. It is 
divided into stanzas, which, though they now 
amount to only ninety-seven, are supposed to have 
originally corresponded in point of number with 
the chieftains that went to Gattraeth. This is 

• Inttittttional Triads. f Ibid. 


strongly intimated in the declaration subjoined to 
Gorchan Oynvelyn, and cited in the notes at page 
86, and thence would we infer that the Oorchanau 
themselves are portions of the Qododin, having for 
their object the commemoration of the persons 
whose names they bear. Of course all of them, 
with the exception of the short one of Adebon, con- 
tain passages that have been transposed from other 
stanzas, which may account for their disproportion- 
ate lengths. This is especially the case with Gor- 
chan Maelderw, the latter, and by far the greater 
portion whereof, is in the Gamhuanawc MS. de- 
tached from the former, and separately entitled 
*^ Fragments of the Gododin and other pieces of the 
sixth century.'^ That they were " incantations,^^ 
cannot be admitted ; and if the word ^' gorchan,^^ or 
" gwarchan **** mean here anything except simply 
" a canon, or fundamental part of song,**^ we should 
be inclined to consider it as synonymous with 
"gwarthan,^^ and to suppose that the poems in 
question referred to the camps of Adebon, Mael- 
derw, and Oynvelyn : — 

*'Qwarohan Cynvelyn or Ododin..'* 

According to the tenor of the Oynvelyn statement, 
every stanza would bring before us a fresh hero. 
This principle we have not overlooked in the discri- 

* Hyvyrimn Arehaiology, vol. i. page 60. 


mination and arrangements of proper names, though 
owing to evident omissions and interpolations, an 
irregularity in this respect occasionally and of ne- 
cessity occurs. 

Anourin, like a true poet of nature, abstains 
from all artful introduction or invocation, and 
launches at once into his subject. His eye follows 
the gorgeously and distinctively armed chiefs, as 
they move at the head of their respective compa- 
nies, and perform deeds of valour on the bloody 
field. He delights to enhance by contrast their 
domestic and warlike habits, and frequently recurs 
to the pang of sorrow, which the absence of the war- 
riors must have caused to their friends and relatives 
at home, and reflects with much genuine feel- 
ing upon the disastrous consequences, that the loss 
of the battle would entail upon these and their dear 
native land. And though he sets forth his subject 
in the ornamental language of poetry, yet he is 
careful not to transgress the bounds of truth. This 
is strikingly instanced in the manner in which ho 
names no less than four witnesses as vouchers for the 
correctness of his description of Oaradawg. Herein 
he produces one of the ''three agreements that 
ought to be in a song,^^ viz. an agreement ''be- 
tween truth and the marvellous.^'* 

* Biurdie Triads. 

t • 


He also gives *^ relish to his song/^* by adopt- 
ing " a diversity of structure in the metre ; ^ 
for the lyric comes in occasionally to relieve the 
solemnity of the heroic, whilst at the same time 
the latter is frequently capable of being divided into 
a shorter verse, a plan which has been observed 
in one of the MSS. used on the present occasion ; 
(\ g. the twelfth stanza is thus arranged, — 

Gwyr a aeth Gattraeib gan ddydd 

A llafn aur llawn anawdd ym bedydd 
Qoren yw hyn cyn cystlwn carennydd 

Neofl goren dan bwylliad neirthiad g^ychydd. 

But though Aneurin survived the battle of Gat- 
traeth to celebrate the memory of his less fortunate 
countrymen in this noble composition, he also ulti- 
mately met with a violent death. The Triads re- 
late that he was killed by the blow of an axe, 
inflicted upon his head by Eiddin son of Einigan, 
which event was in consequence branded as one of 
" the three accursed deeds of the Isle of Britain.^'f 

His memory, however, lived in the Qododin, and 
the estimation in which the poem was held by his 

* Bardie Triadi. f Triad 48, third seriei. 


successors has earned for him the title of '^ medeyrn 
beirdd,^^ the king of Bards. Davydd Benvras 1190 
— 1240, prays for that genius which would enable 

'* To sing praiies aa Aneurin of yore, 
The day he sang the Qododin.* 

Bisserdyn 1290 — 1340 in an Ode to Hywel ab 
Gruffydd speaks of 

*' A tongue with the eloquence of Aneurin of splendid song.*^t 

And Sevnyn 1320—1378 asserts that 

" The praise of Aneurin is proclaimed by thousands. **:( 

Such is the language in which the medioeval Bards 
were accustomed to talk of the author of the God- 

The basis of the present translation is a MS. on 
vellum apparently of about tho year 1200. In that 
MS. the lines are all written out to the margin, 
without any regard to the measure. Oapital letters 
are never introduced but at the beginning of para- 
graphs, where they are ornamented and coloured 
alternately red and green. At page 20 Gwilym 
Tew and Bhys Nanmor|| are mentioned as the 
owners of the Book, but the names are written in 
a hand, and with letters more modem than the 
MS. It at one time belonged to Mr. Jones the 

* MjY. Arch. vol. i. p. 806. t lb. p. 408. I lb. p. 504. 

I Gwtlym Ttow llouridied A.D. 1340—1470, and Bbya Naimior, A.D. 1440— 


Historian of Brecknockshire, and came latterly 
into the possession of the late Bev. T. Price, with 
whose Executrix, Mrs. E. Powell of Abergavenny, 
it now remains. The author of the Celtic Be- 
scarchos took a transcript of it, which he com- 
municated to the Bey. W. J. Bees, of Gascob, 
who had previously copied the said transcript by 
the permission of the Rev. E. Davies. Mr. Bees'^s 
copy was afterwards collated by Dr. Meyer with 
Mr. Davies^s transcript, and the only inaccuracy 
which had crept in was by him carefully corrected. 
Dr. Meyer again transcribed Mr. Bees^s copy for 
the use of the present work, and that version in its 
turn has been collated by Mr. Bees, during the 
progress of the work tli rough the press, with the 
transcript in his possession. To these two gen- 
tlemen the translator is under deep obligations. 

Also to Mr. Owen Williams of Waunfawr, for 
the loan of three other manuscript copies of the Go- 
dodin. Two of them occur in the same book, which 
purports to have been a transcript made by the Bev. 
David Ellis, the first part, A.D. 1776 of an old 
book, the second part, June 7, 1 777, of a book sup- 
posed to have been written by Sion Brwynog about 
the year 1550. In these versions the stanzas are 
not divided. The third version appears in a book 
containing a variety of poems and articles in prose, 
of which, however, the writer or copyist is not 


known, though one ^' Davydd Thomas^^ is menti- 
oned in a poor modern hand as being the owner. 
Our poem is therein headed ** Y Gododin. Aneu- 
rin ae cant. Gyd& nodau y Parchedig Eran Evans.'*' 
These '^ nodau ^^ are marginal notes, and evidently 
the different readings of another version. 

The different copies or versions used are distin- 
guished as follow ; — 


. • « 


£. Evans 


D. Bllis 

• . • 


P. Pan ton ... 



. t . 


£. Davies ... 


D. Thomas 



Dr. Moyor ... 


Nos 1 and 6 are those which are printed in the 
Archaiology of Wales, vol. i. All words that differ 
in form or meaning, though not in orthography, 
from those of No. 7, are duly arranged at the foot 
of the page, from which it will be seen that 1,2,3,5, 
generally agree one with the other, whilst 4 and 
6 also for the most part go together. 

It is to be observed, moreover, that though we 
have taken No. 7 as our text, we have not servilely 
confined ourself to it, but that wherever any of i\w 
other versions have been considered preferable, wo 
have unhesitatingly adopted them. The different 
meanings, however, are generally inserted in the 


Tnis country situate between the Humber and the Clyde 
in North Britfdn was. for the most part^ originally occupied 
by the Cymry, who here, as well as in the west, displayed 
no mean valour in opposition to the Roman arms. The 
latter certainly prevailed ; nevertheless it is to be noticed 
that tliey did not finnlly destroy, nor indeed to any material 
extent alter the national features of Prydyn. This is evi- 
dent from the manner in which the conauerors thought fit 
to incorporate into their own geographical vocabulary many 
of the local names, which they found already m use ; 
and above all from the purely ancestral character which the 
native chieftains exhibited on emerging from the Roman 
ruins in the fifth century. Indeed to permit the defeated 
princes, under certain restrictions, to enjoy their former 
rights and jurisdictions, was perfectly in accordance with the 
usual policy of the Romans, as we mav learn from the tes- 
timony of Tacitus, who remarks, in reference to the British 
king (Jogidunus, that they granted to him certain states 
according to ancient custom, and the reason assigned is that 
they might have even kings as instruments of slavery. ^ 
The homage of the subjugated provinces seems to have 
consisted principally in the payment of a tribute of money, 
and the furnishing of soldiers for foreign service. 

Such, no doubt, was the position of Cunedda Wledig, 
who "began to reign about A.D. 328, and died in 389" ;' 
and who, according to the Historia Britonum attributed to 
Nennius, " venerat de parte sinistrali, id est, de rcgione quie 
vocatur Manau Guotodin," ' the heights of Gododin, and 
the same apparently with the territory of the Ottadeni. 

In the Myvyrian Archaiology, v. 1, p. 71, is printed an 
Elegy on Cunedda, the work of one who had actually par- 
taken of his royal munificence, who had received from liim 
** milch cows, horses, wine, oil, and a host of slaves." The 
writer with respect to the martial prowess of his patron, 

1 Tacit. JuHi Agric. vita, cap. xtv. ' CamTir'tan Diographj, tub voce. 

'•i Stevenson** Nenn'u*. p. 62. 


« Troubling with fear of Canedda, 
WiU be Caer Weir and Caer Liwelydd.** 
And again, 

** A hundred times ere hb shield was shattered in battle, 
Brynoich obejred his oommands in the couUiot." 

The modem names of the localities, mentioned in these 
extracts, are respectively Warwick, Carlisle i and Bemicia. 
The two latter are in the immediate vicinity of the Ottadenl ; 
the former, being further removed, would uidicate the 
direction and extent of his anns. 

From other sources we learn tliat Cunedda was the sou 
of Edeym ab Padam Peisrudd, by Gwawl, daughter of 
Coel Grodebog, and that he was entitled, in risht of his 
mother, to certain territories in Wales. When these were 
invaded by the Gwyddyl, his sons, twelve in number, left 
their northern home for the purpose of recovering the same, 
in which they were successful, though the enemy was not 
finally extirpated until the battle at Cerrig y Gwyddyl, in 
the succeedmg generation. It is asserted by some tliat 
Cunedda accompanied his sons in this expedition, and that 
it was undertaken as much through inability to retain pos- 
session of their more immediate dominions, as from the 
desire of acquiring or regaining other lands. However, 
though the sons settled in Wales and ou its bordera, it is 
more accordant with the drift of the Poem, already cited, to 
suppose that Cunedda himself died in the North. Never- 
theless, it b undoubted that the native chieftains began to 
suffer in that part of the island from barbarian incursions 
even before the departure of the Romans. Thus Ammianus 
Morcellinus, with reference to the year 364, bears testimony, 
that ''the Picts and Saxons and Scots and Attacots ha- 
rassed the Britons with continual oppressions/'^ 

Tho final abandonment of the island by the Romans 
occurred, occorduig to Zosiinus, about A.D. 400 or 409, at 
which time the native princes arose to the full enjoyment 
of feudal dignity and power. In the North, among others, 
we find Pabo Post Prydain, a descendant of Cocl Godebog 
in tho 4th dogruo, und C^iivarcli Our, u inoinbur of another 
branch of the same family ; both of whom, however, were 
compelled by the inroads of the predatory hordes, to leave 
their territories and seek refuge in Wales, though it would 
appear that Urien, son of the latter, succeeded subsequently 
in recovering his paternal dominion. 

1 Itia stated hi the lolo MSB. that Cunedda Wkdis held hi« eourt in Car. 
liale. * Am. Marcel. I. 30. 


The struggle continued, and the enemies had gradually 
extended themselves along the coasts, when in 647 they 
received an important reinforcement hy the arrival of Ida 
with forty ships. Gododin, Deivyr, and Bryneich, beine^ 
Situated on the eastern shore, would be especially exposed 
to the ravages of these marauders. Indeed it does not 
appear that Gododin ever recovered its pristine independ- 
ence after the death of Cunedda, at least we do not hear 
that any of his sons subsequently asserted their claims to it, 
or had any thing to do with the administration of its govern- 
ment : they all seem to have ended their days in their 
western dominions. Deivyr and Bryneich, however, were 
more fortunate, for we find that they were ruled as late as 
the 0th century by British monarchs, among whom are 
named Gall, Diifcdell, and Disgyrnin, the sons of Disgyv- 
yndawd \ ' though there is reason to believe that at that 
time they were in treacherous alliance with the Saxons. 
A Triad positively affirms, that ** there were none of the 
Lloegrwvs who did not coalesce with the Saxons, save such 
as were found in Cornwall, and in the Commot of Camoban 
in Deivyr and Bryneich."^ And it is a remarkable fact, 
as corroborative of this statement, that the Cymry ever 
after, as may bo seen in the works of the Bards, applied the 
term Bryneich to such of their kindred as joined with the 
enemies of their country. 

Certain it is, that, at the period of our Poem, the people 
of the three provinces in question were open enemies of the 
Cymry, as appears from stanzas iii, v, and ix. When we 
see there how the Bard commends one hero for not yielding 
to the army of Gododin, and celebrates the praise of another 
who committed an immense slaughter amongst the men of 
Deivyr and Brvncich, and threatens, in the case of a third 
part^r, that if they were suspected of leaning to the Bern!- 
cian interest, he would himself raise his hand against them, 
we can come to no other conclusion than that those coun- 
tries were arrayed against the Cymry when the battle of 
Cattraeth took place. 

Ida had to encounter a powerful opponent in the person 
of Urien, king of Rheged, a district in or near which 
Cattraeth lay, as we infer from two poems of Taliesin. 
Thus, one entitled ** Gwaith Gwenystrad,'* commences with 
the words, 

" Extol the men of Cattraeth, who, with the dawn, 

Wont with tlicir victorious leader 

Urien, a renowned elder.** ' 

1 Triad 30, third tenet. s Triad 7. > Mjr. Areh. r. i. p. 59. 


In the other, called '< Yspail Tuliesin/' Urien is styled 
" Gly w Cattraeth," the rater of Cattraeth.i At the same 
time he is generally spoken of under the title of Rh^ed's 

The leader of the hostile forces in the battle of Gweuys- 
trad is not named, but in the battle of Areoed Llwyvein 
we find him to be Flamddwy n or the Torch nearer, a name 
by which the Britons delighted to designate the formidable 
Ida. Flamddwyn's army on this occasion consisted of four 
legions, which reached irom Argoed to Arvynvdd, and 
against them were arrayed the men of Goddeu and Rhcged, 
under the command of Ceueu ab Coel, and Owain, and 
** Urien the prince." 

Argoed, bordering on Deivyr and Bryneich, was ruled by 
Llywarch Hen, who after his abdication and flight into 
Powys, pathetically records the loyal attachment of his 
former subjects,-— 

*' The men of Argoed have e?er supported me.*' ^ 

The Historia Britonum enumerates three other kings, who 
with Urien fought against the Saxons in the Nortli, viz., 
Khvdderch, Gwallawg, and Morgant, though the latter, 
under the impulse of envy, procured the assassination of 
Urien, in the Isle of Lindisfarne. 

After the Saxons had finally establislied themselves ou 
the eastern coast, in the forcmentioned countries, au im- 
mense rampart, extending neai'ly from the Solway to the 
Frith of Fortli, was erected, either with the view of check- 
ing their further progress westward, or else by mutual 
consent of the two nations, as a mere line of demai'cation 
between their respective dominions. This wall cannot have 
an earlier date, for it runs through the middle of the country 
originally occupied by the Gadeni, and could not of course 
have been constructed as a boundary by thcra ; nor can it 
be referred to a more recent period, as there could bo no 
reason for forming such a fence after the Saxons ha^d 
intruded upon the whole country which it divides. This 
was the famous Catbail, which we presume to be identi- 
cal with Cattraetu, where the disastrous battle of that 
name, as sung by Aneurin, was fought. 

Catrail means literally '^ the war fence" (cad-rhail), but 
on the supposition that it is synonymous with Cattraeth, 
the rhyme in the Gododin would determine the latter to be 
the correct term, or that by which Aneurin distinguished 

1 My?. Arcfa. y. i* p 67. * Skgy on Old Ag«. 


the line. The meaning of Cattraeth would be either ** thd 
war tract" (cad-traeth), or " the legal war fence (cad-rhaith) ; 
the latter of which would give 8ome countenance to the 
idea tliat it was formed by mutual agreement* 

The whole course of the Catrail, which may be traced 
from the vicinity of Galashiels to Peel-fell, is upwards of 
forty five miles. The most entire parts of it show that it 
was originally a broad and deep fosse ; having on each side 
a rampart, wnich was formed of the natural soil, that was 
thrown from the ditch, intermixed with some stones. Its 
dimensions vary in different places, which may be owing to 
its remains bein^ more or less perfect. In those parts where 
it is pretty entire, the fosse is twenty seven, twenty six, 
and twenty five feet broad. But in those places where the 
rampart has been most demolished the fosse only measures 
twenty two and a half feet, twentv and eighteen, and in one 
place only sixteen feet wide. As the ramparts sloped on the 
inside, it is obvious that in proportion as they were demo- 
lished, the width of the fosse within would be diminished. 
In some of the most entire parts the ramparts are from six 
to seven, and even nine or ten feet high, and from eight to 
ten and twelve feet thick. They are, no doubt, less now 
than they were originally, owing to the effects of time and 
tillage. ^ 

Such is the Catrail, and were it identical with Cattraeth, 
we should naturally expect to meet with some allusions to 
a work of that description in the body of the Poem. Nor 
are we herein dissappointed, for the expressions ** ffosawd,*'' 
"clawdd,"8 "ffin,'** "cladd clodvawr,"» "ffoglawdd,"« 
"clawdd gwernin,"' and "gorffin Gododin, ^ are un- 
doubtedly such allusions, though we readily admit that 
some of them may, and probably do, refer to the ordinary 
circular forts of the Britons, of whom there are several 
along the line. It may be added here that Taliesin in his 
description of tlie battle of Gwenystrad, where tlie men of 
Cattructli fouglit under Uricn, speaks of a "govwr" or an 
intreiichment, that was ** assailed by the laborious toil of 

Having tlius satisfied ourselves ofl to the nature and loca- 
lity of Cattraeth ; the general subject of the Poem becomes 
apparent. It was a battle fought at the barrier in question 
between the Cymry and the Saxons, the most extended in 
its design and operations on the part of the former, as it 

1 Cha1men*s Caledonia, t. i. pp. 230, &c. 2 1. 231. 31. 289. 

-11.38(1. SLStK). 01.634. 7 1. tfo7. 81.718. 


proved to them the most disastrous in its results, of all that 
liad hithei*to taken place between tlie two people in that 
part of the island. 

The details of this bloody encounter, as we gather them 
from the Poem, were as follow : At the call of My nyddawg, 
lord of Eiddin, whose dominions lay peculiai'ly exposed, 
both by sea and land, to the attack of the enemy, the 
native chieftains of Pnrdyn, aided by many of their rela- 
tives and friends from Gwynedd and Cernyw, entered uito 
a mutual alliance in behalf of their common country. ' In 
one place the daughter of Eudav ^ is joined with Mynydd- 
awg, as one upon whose en-aiid the expedition was under- 
taken, but whether slie was hb wife, or ruled over a terri- 
tory adjacent to, or equally threatened with his own, does 
not appear. The troops under their respective leadcra 
arrived at Eiddin, where they were sumptuously enter- 
tained by Mynyddawg, ' and where they established their 
head quarters. The p;enerals named in the Poem amount 
in number to about ninety, but this was not the third part 
of the whole, which consisted of ^Hhroe hundred and sixty 
three chieftains wearing the golden torques."^ The ag;;re- 
gate number of men thai followed these illustrious leaders 
is not toldy but if an average may be formed from what we 
know respecting a few cases, it will appear to have been 
immense. Mynyddaw^s retinue consisted of ** three hun- 
dred ;" fi there were ** hve battalions of five hundred men 
each/' ** three levies of three hundred each ;" *^ three bold 
knights" had each *^tluree hundred of equal quality;"' 
thus averaging about four hundred for each commander, 
which, multiplied by three hundred and sixtv three, would 
exhibit an overwhelming army of a hundred and forty five 
thousand, and two hundred men ! Yet the Poet describes 
the numerical advantages possessed by the enemy as greatly 

These forces, being all placed on the western side of the 
dyke, would approach the land of their enemies as they 
marched to the neld of battle, hence the reason why Aneurin 
uses the expressions '' Gwyr a acth Gattraeth," and '^ Gwyr 
a aeth Gododin," as synonymous. 

The enemies, as before observed, were the Saxons, aided 
on this occasion by man^ of the Lloegrians, namely, such of 
the natives as had submitted to their sway in the provinces 
they had already conquered. They concentrated their 

1 1. S3. > 1. 648. > StanSM svii. xxxU. Izxzvi. 4 L 22V. 

» L Se, 684. P Sunia xrUL 


forces in Grododin, and marched westward in the direction 
of the great fence, where the Britons were awaiting them. 
Aneurin has not thouglit fit to record the names of any of 
their generals, with the single exception of Dyvnwal Vrych,* 
who, to entitle him to that distinction, must have figured 
prominently on the field of battle. 

The cngngcment commenced on a Tuesday, and continued 
for a whole week, the lost four days being the most bloody.^ 
For some time both parties fought gallantly, and with 
almost equal success ; fortune perhaps upon the whole ap- 
pearing to favour the Cymry, who not only slew a vast 
number of their adversaries, but partially succeeded in re- 
covering their lost dominions. ^ At this critical juncture a 
dwarfish herald arrived at the fence, proposing on the part 
of the Saxons a truce or compact, which, however, was in- 
dignant) v rejected by tlie natives, and the action renewed. * 
The scales now rapidly turned. In one part of the field 
such a terrible carnage ensued, that there was but one man 
left to scare away the birds of prey, which hovered over 
the carcases of the slain. ^ In another, wliere our Bard 
was stationed, a portion of the allied army, owing to the 
absence of its general, became panic stricken. ^ Aneurin 
was taken prisoner, hurried off to a cave or dungeon, and 
loaded with chains. ^ At length a conference was submitted 
to, which was held at a place called Llanveithin, at which 
Aneurin, who had been forcibly liberated by one of the sons 
of L!y warch lien, insisted upon the restoration of part of 
Gododin, or the alternative of continuing the fight. The 
Suxon lierald mot the ]»rop()sal by killing the British Bard 
Owain, who was of courao unarmed.* Such a violation of 
jjrivilcgc excited then the whole energies of the Cymry, 
who rose as one man, and gave the entire scene a more 
bloody cliaractcr than it had yet presented. 

Victory, however, at length proclaimed in favour of the 

usurpers, and so decisively, that out of the three hundred 

and sixty three chieftains that went to the field of Cattraeth, 

'il\ three only returned alive, Cynon, and Cadreith, and Cadlew 

of Cadnant, besides Aneurin himself.® The number of com- 
mon soldiers that fell must be conjectured. 

We have said that the battle commenced on a Tuesday ; 
it would appear from two passages, namely, where the 
meetuig of reapers in the hall of Kiddin,^^^ and the employ- 

1 1. 7b\ 884. 9 Slanxa Ixviii- 3 Stanxa xiv. * Stansa xxxix. 

A Stanza xlii. ^ Stanza xliii. 7 Stansa Ixr. 8 Sumsa lii. 

Stunztt xxi. io StansaxrU. 


ment of Gwynwydd in protecting the corn on the high- 
huds,^ are spoken of, that the tune of year in which it 
occurred was the hanrcst. 

It is noty however, so easy to determine the exact year 
when all this happened. Neither Arthur nor Urien are 
mentioned as heing present, and though the stanzas con- 
taining their names may have heen lost, it must be admitted 
that in the case of such distinguished warriors reason will 
not warrant the supposition : the fair inference would be 
that they were dead at the time. This view is, moreover, 
supported by readings of the Gododin, where certain heroes 
are compared to the said chiefs respectively, *' ef Arthur," 
<< un Urien," which would hardly have been done liod these 
latter been alive. The death of Arthur is placed in the 
year 642 ; Owain, who died at Cattraeth, slew Ida, A.D. 
6G0, and Urien is said to have been assassinated about 507 ; 
the battle under consideration must have happened subse- 
quently, probably about the year usually assigned 1^ viz., 
670. This was m the reign of Khun, a descendant in the 
4th degree of Cunedda Wledig, king of Gododin I 

The vulgar opinion is that the Britons lost the battle in 
consequence of having marched to the field in a state of 
intoxication ; and it must be admitted that there are many 
passages in the Poem, which, simply considered, would 
seem to favour that view. Nevertheless, granting that the 
n63 chieftains had indulged too ireely in their favourite 
beverage, it is hardly credible that the bulk of the army, 
on which mainly depended the destiny of the battle, had 
the same opportunity of rendering themselves equally inca- 

Sacitated, or, if we suppose that all had become so, that they 
id not recover their sobriety in seven days ! The fact ap- 
pears to be, that Aneurin in the instances alluded to, intends 
merely to contrast the social and festive habits of liis coun- 
trymen at home with their lives of toil and privation in 
war, alter a practise common to the Bards, not only of that 
age, but subseijuently. Or it may be that the ban(][uet, at 
which the Bntish leaders were undoubtedly entertamed in 
the hall of Eiddm, was looked upon as the sure prelude to 
war, and that in that sense the mead and wine were to tlicin 
as poison. 

1 SUDza zliii. 



Grbdtf gwr oed gwaa 

Gwrbyt am* dias 

Meirch" mv^th myngyraa 

A' dan vordwyt megyrwas* 

Ysgwyt ysgauyn Uedan 5 

Ar bedrein mein vuan * 

Kledyuawr ^ glas glan 

Ethy ear aphan ^ 


Oas e ** rof " a thi IQ 

Owell gwneif a thi *• 

Ar wawt dy uoU 

> awhyr un , 1, 2, 3, 6. ■ March, 3, 6. ■ Y, 1, 2 j 0, 3. * My- 
gr was, 1 ; mygrwas, 2, 8, 6. ' Unam, 2, 5; dinam, 8; unam, neu 
▼uan, 6. • Cleddyfwr, 8 ; CHedyyar, 6. 'A than, 6. ■ Nl, 
8. >Ba, 2, 8, »Efo, 8. " Y, 1, 2, 5, ntcf yiP y ^atr Awi 
yn 8. " Rhof, 1, 2, 8. > Nid ywyhan hwn yn 1, 2, 8, 5. 


Kynt y* waet elawr* 

Nogyt • y * neithyawr 

Kynt y* vwyt*y' vrein 15 


En kyueillt ewein ^* 

Kwl y " uot a" dan vrein " 

Marth^^ ym pa vro 

Llad un mab niarro^ 20 


Kayawo kynhorawo^^ men y delhei^' 
Diffun ymlaen bun med a^ dalhei 
Twll ^ tal y ** rodawr ene " klywei 
Awr" ny ** rodei nawd** meint dilynei 
Ni** chilyei o gamhawn eny'^ verei 25 

Waet mal *^ brwyn gomynei gwyr nyt* echei** 
Nys^ adrawd gododin ^ ar llawr mordoi 

1 1, 1, 2, 8, 6. « E Imwr, 4, 6. " No gyt, 1, 2; Nag iU, 3. 
< I, 1, 2. » I, 2, 6; o, 8. • Uwyd, 1; wayd, 2; waet, 4. ' I, 1. 
2, 8, 4. • Yr, 1, 2, 8, 6. » Argynroiu, 1, 2, 8; argyvraiii. «; 
angyreiu, 5. »• Euoiu, 1, 2, 6; Owain, 2. " I, 8. " Y, 
1, 2; O, 3. ^Nidywy ban kwn yn 6. i« March, 1, 2, 8, 5. 

1* Marco, I, 2, 3. i< Cynliaiawg, 1 , 2, 8. ^^ Dehai, 1. *» Y, 8. 
» Twyli, 6. «• I, 1, 2, 8. «^ Yn y, 1, 2, 8, 6. « Aur, 

1, 2, 8, 5. « Ni, 1, 2, 8, 4. »* Neud, 2, 8, 5. » Ny, 1, 
6. »Yny,l,2,5;imon8. ^^ Mab, 8. " Gwymyd, 

6. »Elhei, 1, 2, 5; echo (el«) 6; dei, 8. >• Nit, 8. « Gwaw- 
dodyo, 8. 


Bac pebyll madawo pan atcoryei 
Namen un gwr^ o gantcny ' delhei' 


Kaoawc kynnivyat ky wlat * erwy t • 30 

Ruthyr eryr en ebyr* pan Uithywyt 

E arnot^ a vu not a gatwyt® 

Gwell a wnaeth e aruaeth ny ** gilywyt 

Rac bedin ododin*® odechwyt" 

Hyder " gymhell ar vreithel vanawyt 35 

Ny ^^ nodi nac ysgeth ^* nao ysgwy t 

Ny ** ellir anet *^ ry vaethpwyt *' 

Eac ergyt catvannan*® catwyt ^* 

Kaeawo kynhorawc bleid e ^ maran 
Gwevrawr godrwawr '^ torchawr am rann 40 
Bu gwevrawr'^gwerthvawr gwerth gwin vann** 

* Nid yw y gair hvm yn 1, 2, 3. ■ Yn y, 1, 2, 5; yno 8. " Un 

rw y pennill hwn a*r eanlynol yn7. * Qyvlat, 1,2, 6; oyflad, 3. 
E rwyt, 4, 6. • Y lyr, 1, 2, 8, 5. ' Yamot, 1 ; y amot 2. 
4, 5 ; I ammod, 8. » Garwyt, 1, 2, 8, 5. » Nl, 2, 8, 4. w Waw- 
dodyn, 8. " dechwyt, 1, 2, 3. " Hydr, 8. " Nl, 8. 
" Yscell, 6 ; osgetb, 8, 5. " Nl, 8. " Enet. 2 ; aned, 8. 
17 Vaethuwyt, 1, 2, 8, vaethvwyd, 5. " Cadfannau, 1, 2, 8, 6, 
'* Yn 7 un yw y pennill kwn aV blaenorol. ^ Bleide, 1 ; bleiddie, 
2, 8; bled e, 5. * Qodrwyawr, 1, 2, 8, 5; godiwawr, 4. *■ Qo- 
▼rawr, 6. "* Owinvan, 1; gwin vain, 2, 8; gwmvann, 5. Vhan 
hwn yn 6,/«/ yma, Gwefrawr godiwawr gwerthvawr gwinvan. 


Ef gwrthodes gwrys gwyar ^ disgrein 

Eet ' dyffei wyned a gogled e' rann 

O gussyl mab ysgyrran^ 

Ysgwydawr^ angkyuan 45 


Eaeawo kynhorawo aruawo eg gawr ^ 
Kyn no diw e gwr^ gwrd eg gwyawr' 
Kynran^ en**^ racwan rac" bydinawr 
Kwydei" pym pymwnt rac^^ y lafnawr" 
O wyr deivyr a brennych dychiawr** 60 

Ugein cant^® ou diuant*'^ en un awr *® 
Kynt y^^gic e^ vleid^* nogyt^ e*^ neithyawr** 
Kynt e* vud^ e^ vran nogyt e^ allawr^ 
Kyn noe*^ argyurein^* e waet e lawr** 

>Gwyr,l,2,8,6. « Kyt, 6; yt,l, 2,8, 6. » Ei, 1, 2, 6; eu, 3. 
^ Y ban hwn yn eisiau yn 6, ' Ysgwyd wr, 1, 2, 3; ysgwydwr, 5. 
' Yggawr, l;yngawr, 2; yn gawr, 3. 'Cyno diwygwr, 1, 5; 
oynnodiw y gwr, 2 ; cyn od iV y gwr, 8. ^ Eggwyawr, 1, 2, 3, 5. 

* Cyvran, 1, 2, 3, 6. ^ Kin, 4. " Rai, 2. " Cwyd ei, 2, 3. 
^' Nid yw rac yn 2. ^* Y la wr (Uafnawr) 6 ; y ta awr, 1 ; yt a awr, 
2 ; it i awr, 3. " Dychrawr, 1, 2, 3, 5. " Ugeincant, 1. ^ Di- 
rant, 1,2,3. »» Unawr, 1, 2, 3. « O, 3. «»I,3. "Plaidd, 
8. « Noo yt, 1, 2; nag it, 3. » I, 3, »* AlUwr, 8. «« I, 3. 

* Vydd, 2. "^ I, 8. " Noc yt y, 1; 2; nag iti, 3; noc yty, 6. 

* Elawr, 1, 2, 5; dawr, 3. Nid yw y ban hwn yn7. ^ Noc, 8. 
^ Argyturein, 6; aigywrain, 4. " Nid yw y ban hwn yn I, 2, 8. 



Gwerth mod eg kyntod gan lliwedawr * 55 
Hyneid ' hir ermygir tra vo kerdawr ' 


Gwyr a aeth Ododin * chwerthin ognaw 

Chwerw en' trin allain en emduUyaw* 

Hyrr vlyncd on ^ lied yd ynt' endaw 

Mab botgat gwnaeth gwynnyeith'gwroith^^o" law 

Ket *' elwynt e ^' lanneu ** benydyaw ci 

A hen a yeueing a hydyr a '* Haw ^* 

Dadyl dihou *^ angheu y ^® eu treidaw ^' 


Gwyr a aeth Ododin ^ chwerthin** wanar 
Disgynnyeis" em^ bedin trin diachar'* «5 
Wy Uedi^ allavnawr heb^ vawr drydar 
Oolovyn gly w reithuy w ^ rodi arwar 



Gwyr a aeth gatraeth oed fraeth eu ^ Uu 
Glasved eu hancwyn a* gwenwyn vu 
Trychant trwy beiryant en cattau 70 

A gwedy elwch tawelwch vu 
Ket' elwynt e* lanneu e * benydu 

Dadyl dieu ' angheu y ^ eu treidu * 


Qwyr a aeth gaimeth voduaeth ^ uodwn ^® 74 

Fyryf ** frwythlawn " oed cam nas kymhwyllwn 

E am " lavnawr coch gorvawr gwrmwn 

Dwys dengyn ed ** emledyn aergwn ^* 

Ar deulu brenneych beych ^^ barnasswn 

Dilyw dyn en vyw nys adawsswn*' 

Kyueillt a goUeis diffleis vedwn^® 80 

Bugyl en emwrthryn rynn riadwn 

Ny mennws gwrawl gwadawl chwegrwn 

Maban y gian vaen gwynngwn** 

1 Y, 1, 2, 4; o, 3. » M If 2, 3, 6. » Cyt, 1, 2, 3. * I, 3. 
» I, 3. • Diheu, 2, 8, 4. ' O, 3; yn, 6. « Eudu, 2. 

» Vedvaeth, 1, 2, 4. w Vedwn. 1, 2, 4. " Phyru, 1, 2, 3. 
" Fruythlaun, 1. " Earn, 1. " Yd, 1 , 2 ; ydd, 3. « Oei^wn, 
2, 3. ^< Be ich, 1, 2, 3. ^^ Gadawaswn, 1, 2, 3 ; adaaswn, 8. 
u Odovn, 1 ; oedwn, 2, 8, 4, 8. >^ Un maban e gian o dra bannawo. 
Chrch Maeld, i*y 

y GODODIN. 1 5 

Gwyr a aeth gatraeth gan wawr 
Trauodynt en ' hed eu ' hovnawr ' r5 

Milcant a thrychant a emdaflawr^ 
Gwyarllyt gwynnodynt* waewawr® 
Ef gorsaf yng gwryaf ^ eg gwryawr® 
Rac gosgord mynydawc mwynvawr 


Gwyr a aeth gatraeth gan wawr oo 

Dygymyrrws eu hoet eu hanyanawr ® 
Med evynt melyn molys ^® maglawr 
Blwydyn bu Uewyn Uawer** kerdawr 
Ooch eu cledyuawr*^ naphurawr*' 
Eu llain gwyngalch aphedryoUt" bennawr 
Rac gosgord mynydawc mwynvawr 96 


Gwyr a aeth gatraeth gan dyd 
Neus goreu o gadeu gewilid 

1 Eu, 4. ' En, 5 ; yn, 2, 8. ' Eofnawr, 3. * Em daflawr, 1 ; 
am davlawr, 2, 8. 'A gwynodynt, 1, 2, 8. ' Waeula^r, 1, 2; 
waewlawr 3, 5. ^ Engwriaf, 2, 3, 5. " Enguriawr, 3. ' Hagan* 
awr (hantanawr) 6; hanganawr, 2; hangenawr, 8. ^^ Melys, melyn, 
3. " LUwen, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Cleddyfeu'r, 8. » Phlwawr, 
1,2; pliluawr, 3, 5; phlnrawr, (phurawr) 6. '^ Phodryolot, 1, 2,8. 


Wy gwnaethant en geugant gelorwyd 

A llavnawr^ llawn annawd' em' bedyd loo 

Goreu yw hwn* kyn* kystlwn kerennyd 

Enneint'^ creu ac angeu oe hennyd 

Rac bedin Ododin ^ pan yudyd 

Neus goreu deu' bwyllyat neirthyat gwychyd • 


Gwr a aeih gatraeth gan dyd^® ia5 

Ne " Uewes ef vedgwyn " veinoethyd *^ 

Ba truan gyuatcan ^^ gyvluyd 

E ** neges ef or ^^ drachwres drenghidyd *^ 

Ny ** chryssiws gatraeth 

Mawr mor ehelaeth no 

E *" aruaeth uch arwy t 
Ny ** bu mor gy ffor ^ 
O eidyn ysgor 

A esgarei*^ oswyd 


Tutuwlch hir* ecli e^ dir ae dreuyd '♦ 115 

Ef Uadei ^ Saesson seithuet dyd 

Perheit • y • wrhy t "^ en wrvyd ' 

Ae govein gan e gein ' gy weithyd 

Pan dyvu dutvwch dut** nerthyd 

Oed gwaetlan *^ gwyaluan " vab Kilyd " 120 


Gwr ^^ a aeth gatraeth gan wawr 
Wyneb udyn ysgorva ysgwydawr 
Crei kyrchynt** kynnullynt^* reiawr*^ 
En gynnan *® mal taran twryf aessawr t 
Gwr gorvynt ^' gwr etvynt^ gwr Uawr 126 
Ef rwygei a chethrei a chethrawr 
Od uch» lied" Uadei "^ a** Uavnawr 
En gystud heym durarbennawr 

> Tudvwlchir, 1, 2; tudfwloh ir, 3. " O, 3. ■ Drewydd, 1, 2; 
trewydd, 3; drevyd, 8. ^ Lladd el, 1, 2; a ladd ei, 8. ' Par- 
held, 3. "El, 1, 2, 3. ' Wrthyt, 2, 8. « Wr rhydd, 1, 2, 3, 6, 
wrryd, 8. » Ugoin, 1, 2, 3, 6. ^^ Drut, 2, 8. " Gwaedlain, 8; 
gwaethan, 4. i* Gwyalfain, 3; gwyaluan, 4. ^" Eilydd, 1, 2, 8, 5. 
" Gwyr, 1, 2, 3. 6. " Cynhynt, 4, 6. '• Cyn hynt, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
'' Treiawr, 1. 2, 3, 6. *' Gynuan, 1, (fortaase 6;) oynwan, 6. 

"• Goraynt, 8. » Etwynt 1, 2, 3, 5; etuynt, 8. " O dduch, 
1, odduch, 2; oeddych, 8. "* Lie, 1, 2, 3, 5. " Lladdes 1, 2, 8. 
»« Y, 6. 

* Tutuwlch treissic aer caer o dileith 
TutTwIch treinio hair caer godileit. Oorch. Mael, 

f Mal taran nem tarhei scuitaur. Oorch, Mael, 


E ^ mordei ystyngei a dyledawr 

Bac erthgi ' erthychei ' vydinawr lao 


O vreithyell gatraeth pan adrodir 

Maon dychiorant ^ eu hoet bu hir 

Edyrn diedyrn amygyn* dir 

A meibyon godebawo gwerin enwir 

Dyforthynt lynwyssawr • gelorawr hir 135 

Bu tru a ^ dynghetven anghen gy wir 

A dyngwt y dutvwlch • a ohy vwlch hir 

Ket* yvein ved gloyw wrth leu^** babir 

Ket " vei da e " vhw y " gas bu hir 


Bhien echeching " gaer glaer ** ewgei ^* i40 
Gwyr gweiryd *' gwanar ae dilynei 
Blaen ar e bludue^^ dygollouit^' vual 

^A, 3, 5. « Erihei, 1, 2, 8, 5. >Erthryohoi, 1,2,3, 5. M)ych. 
uranfc, 1, 2, 8, 5; dyokariint, (dydiiorant) 6. 'A mygyn, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
• Gowywawr, 1, 2, 3, 5, ' Trtmn, 1, 2, 3, 5. ^ Dulvwlcli, 1. 
2,8. •Cyt,l,2,3. »• Uw, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Cyt, 1, 2, 3. *» Ei, 1, 
2,8. ui,8. i«Yoheobinig,l;yoheobinK,2,8, 5. ^^Nidywy 
aair hwn y» 1, 2, 3, 5. i* Y negfS, 1, 2, 8 ; yneglei, 5. 

^ Oweryd, 1, 2, 3, 6. " Bluolue, 2; tIuoIto, (corrupU) 5; nid 
ytp yH 3. >* Dy galonnit, 1, 2, 5; digalonnit, 3 ; dygoUovid 4, C; 
Dy gollottil, 6. 


Ene vwynvawr^ vordei' 

Blaon gwirawt vragawt ef dybydei 

Blacn eur a phorphor kein as'' mygei 145 

Blacn edystrawr * pasc ae gwaredei 

Gwrthlef,* ac* euo^ bryt ae derllydei® 

Blaen erwyre^ gawr buduawr**^ drei 

Arth" en Uwrw byth hwyr e techei*' 


Anawr *' gynhoruan ^* 150 

Huan arwyran " 

Gwledic gwd^® gyffgein 

Nef enys brydein 


Aes elwrw^* budyn^' 165 

Bual oed arwynn ^ 

Eg kynted eidyn 

Erchyd ^^ ryodres 

' Er Rwyvnawr, 6 ; ene wynvawr, 4. ■ iVw? j/» y ban yn 1, 2, S. 
» Nns, 1, 2, 8, 5. « Eddystlawr, 1, 2, 8. »'Gwarth lef, 1, 2, 8 ; 
gwarthlef, 5, 6. ' Ag, 1, 2, 8, 6. ' Eno, 1,5; enw, 2, 8; evo, 
6. " V mae y llinell hon ar ol y ganlynol yn 2. • Arwyre, 

2, 3. w IJudvaur, 1, 2, 8. " Arch, 1, 2,3, 6. " Y techel, 
2; etochei, 4 ** A nawr, 1, 2; yn awr, 3. ^* Oynhornan, 2, 3 ; 
gyn^horvan, 4,6. " Ar wyran, 2. " Gyd, 1, 2, 8, 6. ^"^ Rhed, 

3, 5. '" O Iwrw 3; e Iwrw, 4. ^» byddyn 3. » Anvyn, 1, 
2, 3, 5. « Trihyd, 1, 2, 3, 6. 



E ved ^ medwawt 

Yaei win gwirawt 160 

Oed eruit'uedel' 

Yuei* vdn gouel* 

Aerueid ' en arued ^ 

Aer gennin^ yedel 

Aer adan ' glaer 166 

Eenyn keuit ^® aer 

Aer seirchyawc" 

Aer edenawc 

Ny t oed diryf " y " yBgwy t 

Gan waywawr" plymnwyt 170 

Kwydyn" gyuoedyon^* 

Eg cat blymnwyt 

Diessic'^ e dias^^ 

Divevyl *• as •• talas 

Hudid " e wyllyas " 176 


Ejn bu clawr glas 
Bed gwruelling ^ vreisc * 


Teithi etmygant' 

Tri Uwry novant* 

Pymwnt a phymcant iso 

Trychwn* a thrychant** 

Tri si' chatvarchawo' 

Eidyn euruchawc* 

Tri Uu Uurugawc 

Tri eur doym dorchawc 105 

Tri marchawc dywal 

Tri chat^o gyhaual 

Tri chysneit^^ kysnar" 

Chwerw vysgynt" esgar 

Tri en drin en drwm igo 

Llew lledynt blwm 

'* Chwerfysgynt, 1, 8, 5; chwervys gynt, 2. 


Eur e gat^ gyngrwn 

Tri theym maon 

A dyvu o' vrython 

Kynri' a Ohenon * 195 

Kynrein aeron 

Gogyuerchi' yn hon 

Deivyr diuerogyon 

A • dyvu vrython 

Wr well no Ohynon 200 

Sarph sen alon 


Eveis y ' win a med e mordei 
Mawr meint e ® vehyr* 

Yg kyuaruot ^® gwyr 


Bwyt 6" eryr eiysmygei 206 

Pan gryesyei gydywal kyfdwyrmi 
Awr gan wyrd wavr kym" dodei 

1 O gad, 3; yngbat, 5. * Nid yw y gair hum yn 2. * Cyn- 
riC| 1, 2, 5; cynfrig, 8, 5. ^ Cberion, 4. • Gogyvertb, 1, 2, 8, 5; 
gogyuerthi, 4. *Ntdywyni, ^ Nid yw yn 2; o, S; i o, 5. 
* O, 3; dim yn% • Ueuyr, i. e. vewyr, 5. *• Y^varvot, 1. 
2.8. "1,8,4. MOyny,l,2,8,5. 


Aessawr dellt ambellt ^ a adawei' 
Pareu rynn rwygyat dygymmynei 
E gat' blaen bragat briwei 210 

Mab symo sywedyd ae gwydyei 

A werthws* e* eneit 

Er* wyneb grybwyllyeit ' 
A llavyn lliveit Uadei 
Lledessit ac a thrwys ' ao affrei ' 216 

Er amot ^® aruot aruaethei 


O wyr gwychyr gwned 
Em blaen gwyned gwanei ^ 


Eveis y^^ win a med e mordei 220 

Gan yneis disgynneis rann '* fin fawd ut ^* 
Nyt didrachywed*^ colwed^* drut 

1 Am bellt, 1, 2, 8. * AdAwei, 1,2, 8,4;adawel, 8. 'Igat,4; 
jnghat, 8, 5. « Wertho, 5. > £i. 8. • Yr 1, 2. ' Grybwieit, 

1, 2, 8. ' Ag a ohrwys, 1, 2. 8, 5; ao athrwyi, 4. * A phrei, 1, 

2, 8, 5 ; aftrei, (a pharei) 6. ^^ A mot, 1, 2; y mod, 8. " Dinnygei; 
2, 3, 6. " Genaledd, 1, 2, 8. ^ Gwnei, i; unyw hwn aW 
penwiU eanlynol yn 1 a 7. ^* 0, 1, 2, 8. '^ Can, 1, 2, 5, 6; 
pn, 3. ^* Fanlnt, 1, 2, 8, 5. ^ Didrachyret, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
'^ Ck>lmet, 1, 2, 8; colwed, .coined, 5; (coined, eofoed) 6. 


Pan disgynnei bawb ti disgynnot ' 

Ys deupo gwaeanat' gwerth na phechut^ 

Pressent i drawd* oed vreiohyawr* drut* 


Gwyr a aeth gatraoth buant enwawo 22G 

6win a med o ^ eur vu eu gwirawt 

Blwydyn en erbyn urdyn^ deuawt® 

Trywyr a thri ugeiut a thrychant eurdorcliawo^ 

Or sawl yt gryssyassant ucli gormant wirawt 280 

Ny diengifl" namyn tri o wrhydri fossawt 

Dea gatki^^ aeron a chenon dayrawt^ 

A minheu om gwaetfreu gwerth yy gweunwawt 

1 Dugynnat, 2, 3. * Gwaeaned, 5. ' Pheohawd, 3. * Ad- 
rawt, 1> 2, 4; addrawd, 3. * Yreichvawr, 1, 2, 3, 5. * Oo, 6; 
ag: 3. 7 Tridyn, 2, 3, 6 ; wrdyn, 5. ^ Deawd, 1, 2, 3 ; de- 

vawd, 6. * Eurdorchawd, 1. ^o Diengei, 1, 2, 3. ^^ Gatei, 
2, 3. ^ Daearawt, 2, 3; dayarawt, 1, 5. ^ Un yw hwn aV 

ddau bennUl eanljfnol yn 1. 

* Pan eigynnei (estynnei) 1.) bawb ti disgynnut (disgymiut, 1.) 

••• ■•• ••• •■• ••• #•■ 

Ath uodi (uedi, 1,) gwas nym gweith (gwerth, 1.) na thechut 
Pressent kyuadrawd (cyn adrawd, 1.) oed breichyaul glut. 

Oorch, Mael, 

f Trywyr a thiygeint a tliiyckant 

Y vreithyol Qattraotli ydaoUiant 

Or saul yt giyasiasant 

Uch ved Tenestri 

Namyn tri nyt atoorasant (atconant^ 4.) 

Oynon a ckadraeth (ohatroitb, 4.) a obathleu (chatlew, 4.) a 
gatuant (o gatnant, 4.) 

A minneu om oreu ... * ... Chrck, Cfynvdyn, 



Uyg car * yng wirwar • nyn gogyffrawt ' 

neb * ny ** bei gwyn dragon ducawt ® 235 

Ni didolit yng kynted o ved gwirawt 

Ef ^ gwnaei® arbeithing^^perthyng*® aruodyawc 

Ef ^^ disgrein eg cat disgrein en aelawt 

Neus adrawd gododin " gwedy fossawt 

Pan vei ^ no Uwyeu " llymach nebawt* 240 


Aryf angkynnuU^ agkyman dull agkysgoget 
Tra chywed^® vawr treiglessyd Uawr^' Uoegrwys 

Heessit eis ygkynnor *' eis yg cat uereu 

1 Vygcar, 1, 2, 8; Uyg car, 4. ■ Yngwirvan, 1, 2, 8. » Go- 
syyhraut, 1, 2; gogyrhawd, 2; gogongrawd, 3; gogyngrbawd, 5; 
(gogyffrawt, 6.) * Heb, 1, 2, 8, 6. » Ony, 1, 2, 8. • Deu 
oant, If 2, 5; dooant, 3; douoawt, (ducawt, 6.) ^^ Rs, 1, 2; ye, H. 
** Gwnei, 1, 2, 3, 0. » Arceitbiuff, 1, 2, 3; arccthin, 5; nrbclth- 

ing, 0. w Perthin, 1, 2, 3, 6. " Es, 1, 2; ys. 3. ^^ Owawd- 
odyn, 3. ^* JVid yw y gair hwn yn 5. ^* Llivyeu, 4 ; llivyfn, 
(llivyeu,) 6. " Agceun null, 2; angeu'n null, 3. ** Tr.ioliy\vo«l, 
4 ; tracbiwct, 6. *' Llawer, 1, 2, 3. " Grivct,(r) 7. '" Y^jcyniiur, 
1, 2 J yngbynwr, 3; yg cynvor 6. 

* Ny satbraut gododin ar glawr fossaut 

Pan vei no Uif Uymaob nebaut. Oorch, Mad, 


Goruc* wyr Uudw 

A gwraged gwydw • 245 

Eynnoe ' angheu 
Oreit vab hoewgir* 
Ao ysberi 

Y • beri creu* 


Arwr y • dwy ysgwyt adan 250 

E dalvrith ao oil tith ^ orwydan ^ 

Bu trydar en aerure ' bu tan 

Bu ehut *• e waewawr " bu huan ** 

Bu bwyt brein bu bud e " vran ** 

A chyn edewit on rydon ^* 255 

Gbn wlith eryr tith tiryon 

1 Qorae^ 1, 2, 8, 5; gome, 6. > Owydn, 5. > €yn noi, 1, 2, 8. 
*Hoewgi,l. »I,8. 'A, 8. ' Eltith, 1, 2, 8, 5. « Prwy- 
dao, 1, 2 ; Prydan, 8 ; orwyden (orwyd an, 6.) * Arvau, 1, 2, 8, 5. 
» Hut, 1, 2, 8. " Wawr, 2, 8, 6; waawr, I. w Truan, 6. 

M I, 5. " Rhydion, 1, 2, 8, 6. 

* Ef gwneei gvrjr Uydw 
Y gwraged gwydw 

Kynn oe aDgheu 
Breint mab bleidgi 
Bao (ao, 1.) ysbrei 

Y beri greu. Goreh, Mad, 


Ac du gwasgar gwanec tu ^ bronn 
Beird byt barnant wyr o gallon ' 
Diebyrth ' e gerth * e * gynghyr 
Diua oed e • gynrein ^ gan wyr 260 

A chynn e ^ olo a dan*' eleirch 
Vre *® y toed *^ wryt eno *' arch *^ 
Gorgolches e ** greu y seirch 
Budvan vab bleidvan dihavarch ^^ 


0am e adaw ^^ heb gof camb ehelaeth 265 

Nyt adawei adwy yr adwriaeth 

Nyt edewes e *^ lys les kerdoryon prydein 

Diw calan yonawr ene *® aruaeth 

Nyt erdit^^ o dir kevei diffeith 

Drachas anias dreic ehelaeth 270 

Dragon yg gwyar gwedy gwinvaeth 

Gwenabwy vab gwenn gynhen gatraeth ^ 

1TJ,3. ■Galon, 1,2, 8. 'Diebyrth, 3. *Ocith, 

1,2,3,6. »0,3. '0,3. ' Gyfpein, 1, 2, 3, 5. "1,1,2, 
8. 'O dan, 1,2, 3, 5; a dan, 8. w Un, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Ytwed 
2; yt wed, 5. " Yn y, 1, 2; yn i. 3, 6, " Elrch, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
** I, 8« " Un yw kwn a'r pennill canlyfud y» 1, 7. ^' Y 

adaw, 1; ydaw, 2, 5; y ddau, 8. '' I, 8. » Yn y, 1, 2; yn i, 
3, 6. » Erdip, 2, 8, 6. » Galltraeth, 1. 



Bu gwir^ mal y meud' e gatlew' 
Ny^ deliis meirch neb marchlew^ 
Heessit waywawr • j glyw 276 

Y ar' Uemenic llwybyr dew® 
Keny * yaket am vyrn am borth ^^ 
Dywal y " gledyual emborth** 
Heessyt onn o bedryollt^® y law 

Y ar ^* veinnyelP* vygedortb^' ♦ 280 
Yt ^^ rannei *® rygu *• e *^ rywin *^ 

Yt" ladei a llauyn^ vreith** o eithin 
Val pan vel ** medel ar vreithin * 
E gwnaei^ varchlew^ waetlin 

1 Gwin, 8. * Mead, 1 ; modd, 8, 5. * Gatbleu, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
« Ni, 8. > Marchleu, 1, 2, 8, 5. • Moenor, 1, 2, 3, 5. ' Ysr, 
1, 2, 8. ' JVYct yw hvn naV ban hUuiwrol ynh. * Ceneu, 8, 5. 
10 Vym am borth, 1, 2, 3; vyrn ambortb, 5; vym vy mam borth, 6. 
11 1, 8. ^ Nid ytoylan hum, yn 6, ^ Dodryolet, 1, 3, 3. 

M Yar, 1, 2, 8. " Veingel, 1, 2, 3. " Fygdorth, 3. '' It, 3, 6. 
^ Yaonoi, 1, 2, 8; fannei, 5; van oi, 5. " Hyngu, 3, 5; vygu, 6. 
^Nidywyny lUUl. » Ryvin, 2, 8, 6 ; lyuin, 1. « Ys, 2, 8, 5. 
*> Allauyn, 1 ; alkwyn 2, 8 ; a Uavyn, 4 ; a llawyn, 5, ** Vreich, 
1,2,8. «» Del, 1, 2, 3, 6. «« Vreiddin, 5, 6. »Gwnei, 1, 2; 
gwneu, 3. ^ Yarchlcu, 1, 2, 3. 

* Gen ath diwedus tutles (tut leo, 1.) 

Na deliifl meiroh neb marcblew (march lew 1.) 

Keoy vaccet am byrth amporth 

Oed oadam e gledyual ynyorth 

Ur rwy Jiginnyei y onn o bediyhoU (bryhoU, 1.) 

LUy (llaw, 1.) yar vein eroh mygodorth. Ooreh. Mad. 



Isaac anuonawo o barth deheu 285 

Tebio mor lliant y deuodeu ' 

wyled a Uaryed 

A' chein ' yuet med 
Men * yth glawd e • offer e bwyth madeu 
Ny • bu hyll ^ dihyll ® na heu • diheu 290 
Seinnyessy t e ^® gledyf ym penn mameu 
Murgreit ** oed moleit ef mab gwydneu 


Eeredio " caradwy . e *' glot 

Achubei gwarchatwei not 

Lletvegin is ** tawel kyn *• dyuot 295 

E*® dyd gowychyd y*^ wybot 

Ys deupo car kyrd^® kyvnot 

Y *^ wlat nef adef atnabot 

^ Y ddevodeu, 1; y devo den, 2; ydd efo den, 8; y denadeu, 4. 
' O, 1, 2, S, 5. « Chair, 1, 2, 8, 5. ^ Men, 1, 2, 5; mae 8. 

^Nidywy gair hwn yn 1, 2, 8, 5. « Ni, 1, 2, Z, 6. ' HU, 1, 
2, 8, 6. » Dihil, 1, 2, 8, 4. • Hen, 1, 2, 8, 5. " I, 8. 

^^ Mur greit, i; un yw hwn a\ penntU blaenorol yn I s yn 4, «» 

raV canZynol, " Caredig, 1, 2, 8. "I, 8. " Ys, 8, 5. 
Hyn, 8. " iTu? yw yn 1, 2, 8, 5. >' I, 8. " Cyredd, 8. 
» O, 3. 



Eeredic^ karadwj gynran 

Eeimyat ' yg cat gouaran' doo 

Ysgwyt eur crwydyr* cadlan 


Kledyual dywal diwan ® 

Mai gwr catwei wyaluan 

Eynn kysdud daear hynn ^ affan 305 

O daffar diffynnei e vann 

Yb deupo kynnwys yg kyman • 

Oan * drindawt en undawt gyuan 


Pan gryssyei garadawo y *^ gat 

Mai " baed coet ^ trychwn trychyat 310 

Tarw bedin en trin gormynyat " 

Ef llithyei wydgwn ^ oe anghat 

Yb vyn *• tyst ewein ^' vab eulat 

A gwryen a gwynn a gwryat 

^ Caredig, 1, 8. * Ceinyat, 1, 2; ceiniad, 8, 5. > Gowau, 
1, 2, 8, 5. « Orwydr, 1, 2, 8. • Qwaeawr, 1, 2, 8. ^ Divan, 5. 
' Gyn, 1, 2, 8| 4. * Ygoyman, 1; agoyman, 2, 8; yg cytan, 5. 

» Gan, 8. " Gy? an, 1, 2, 8, 4. " I, 8. " Mab, 1 , 2, 8. 

MOooh,l,2, 8. M Gornynyat, 2, 8. "Wydgwn, 1,2. » Uy, 
1, 2, 8. V Owein, 8. 


O gatraeth * o gymynat ' 316 

O yrynn hydwn kynn caSat 
Gwedy med gloew ar anghat 
Ny weles vrun ' e * dat • 


Qwyr a ' gryssyasant ^ buant gytneit • 319 

Hoedyl vyrryon* medwon^® uch med hidleit 
Gosgord mynydawc enwawc *^ en reit 
Gwerth eu gwled e ^ ved vu eu heneit 
Oaradawo a madawc pyll ao yeuan 
Gwgawn a gwiawn gwynn a chynvan 
Peredur arveu dur gwawr-dur ^ ac aedan 325 
Achubyat eng gawr ysgwydawr angkyman 
A chet ^* lledessynt ** wy Uadassan 
Neb y *® eu tymhyr nyt atcorsan *^ 

1 Galltraeth, 1,2. > Oomynyat, 2, 8. > Fron, 1, 2, 8. 

unun, 4; Tnin Tel nryen, 5; uron, 6. ^ I, 8. * J^id yw y 

penntU kwn yn datfod yma ynl, ^ Gwyra, 1. ^- Gryssiast, 3. 
« Gyvneit, 2, 3. » Hoedlvynion, 1, 2, 8. *» Nid yw y gair 

hion yn 4. " Eurawc, 1, 2, 3, 5. " O, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Gwswr 
dur, 1, 2, 3, 8. " Achct, 1. " Llededd, 5. " I, 8. " Un yw 
hwn aV pennill hlaenorolyn 1. 



Gwyr a gryssyassant buant gytvaeth ^ 
Blwydyn od uch ' med mawr eu ' haruaeth 390 
Mor dru eu hadrawd wy angawr hiraeth 
Owenwyn eu hatUam nyt mab^ mam ae^ maeth 
Mor hir eu hetlit ^ ao ^ eu hetgyllaeth ^ 
En ol gwyr pebyr temyr gwinvaeth • 
Gwlyget gododin^® en erbyn fraeth 836 

Ancwyn " mynydawc enwawc e gwnaeth 
A phrit er prynu breithyell gatraeth *' 


Gwyr a aeth gatraeth ^^ yg cat yg gawr^* 

Nerth meirch a gwrymseirch ** ac ysgwydawr 

Peleidyr *® ar gychwyn a Uym waewawr*^ 340 

A llurugeu claer a chledyuawr 

Ragorei tyllei trwy vydinawr 

Kwydei ^ bym ^ pymwnt '^ rao y lavnawr 

» Gyhaeth, 1, 2, 3, 6. « dduch 1 ; oduch, 2. » Y, 1, 2, 3. 
*Nidywynl,&. ^ Au, 6. « IIe(Ud, 1, 2; hodiad, 3. ' Ag, 
1, 2. ^ Het gyllaeth, 2 ; y mas y han kton ar ol y canlynol yn \, 
2.3. <^ OwinsaoUi. ara//. Nid vw v Van hum vn Q. ^^Owaw- 


Bttuawn ^ hir ef rodei ' eur e ' allawr 

A chet a choelvein kein y ' gerdawr 345 


Ny wnaethpwyt neuad mor orchynnan • 

Mor vawr® mor oruawr^ y gyvlavan 

Dyrllydut® medut* raoryen*® tan 

Ny thraethei na wnelei ^* kenon kelein 

Un " seirchyawG saphwy awe ^' son ^* ediy dan** 350 

Seinnyessit e *^ gledyf empenn *^ garthan *' 

Noc ** ac esgyc ^ canec** vurvawr^ y chyhadvan ^ 

Ny*^ mwy gysgogit^ wit^* uab peithan*^ 


Ny wnaethpwyt neuad mor anvonawc^ 

Ony bei yoryen'» eil caradawc 366 

1 Rhuvawn, 1, 2; Rhufain, 8. ' Eodei, 1. ' I, 8. * 1, 8. 
• Orchyman, 1, 2, 3, 5. • Ofawr vel owawr, 5. ^ O wawr, 1, 2 ; 
wawp, 3; Orvawr, 4, 6. ' Derllydd^7d, 3. • Meddwyd, 3, 6. 
JO Morien, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Welei, 1, 2, 3, 6. " Yn, 1, 2, 3. 

"Saphwryawc, 8. "Ton, 1, 2, 3. !> Dydnan, 1, 2, 3; 
llydvan, 6; elydan, etydnan, 6. ^' 1,3. *' Em penn, 4. 

" Gorchan, 1, 2, 3, 6. ^» Noe, 1, 2, 3. *» Eseye, 1, 2; emme, 8; 
yscog, 6; escye, 4, 6 ; eagysc 8. "* Carrec, 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, 6. "iVtrf 
yw y yair vur y» 1, 2, 3, 5 ; vup vawr, 8. ** Cbahydvan, 6. •* Nid, 
6. «» Ysgogit, 1, 2, 3. «• Vit, 1, 2 ; fyd, 3; fld, 5; ult, 6. 
"^ Tcithan, 1, 2, 3; uu we hwn aV pcnnill canlynol yn 1. * Aii- 
novawc, 1, 2, 8, 6. "Vorgen, 4. 



Ny diengis en^ trwm elwrw* mynawo 

Dywal djwalach no mab ferawo' 

Fer y * law faglei fowys • varcbawc 

Glew dias dinas e ^ lu ^ ovnawc 

Bac bedin ododin^ bu gwasgarawc 360 

Y gylchwy • dan y ^® gyniwy bu adenawo " 

Yn dyd gwyth " bu ystwy th neu bwy th atreilly- 

Dyrllydei ^ vedgyrn eillt mynydawo 


Ny wnaetbpwyt neuad mor diessic 864 

No** Ohynon lary vronn geinnyon** Wledic 
Nyt ef eistedei en tal lleithic 
E neb a wane! nyt adwenit *^ 
Baclym e ^^ waewawr " 
Oalch drei *• tyllei vydinawr 

J Un, 8, 4 ; yr eu, 0. » Y Iwrw, 1, 2, 4 ; o 1 wrw, 3, 6. » Phe- 
ruwc, 1, 2, 8. * I, 1, 2, 3, • Toi)V7», 2 ; ty wyi, 8. • 0, 3. ' Bu, 2. 
8 Wawdodyn, 3. » Ynghylchwy, 6. *» 0, 3; I, 5. " Adeuawg, 6. 
" Ouych, 1, 2, 3, 4. » Dysllyddei, 8; derllyddei, 3. » Ny, 

1 ; na, 3. ^^ Olinnyon, 1, 2, 3. i< Adwdnit, 1, 2, 8, 5. ^^ 1, 3. 
i» Waeawr, 1, 2, 8. ^ Calchdei, 1, 2,8; calchei vel calcb- 

dei, 5. 


Bao vuan ^ y * veirch rao rygiawr ' 370 

En dyd gwy th * atwy th oed e • lavnawr 
Pan gryssyei gynon gan wyrd yriyrr 


Disgynsit en trwm ^ yg kessevin 

Ef diodes gormes ef dodes ' fin ® 

Ergyr gway w rieu ry vel chwerthin 376 

Hut eflfyt» yi» wrhyt" elwry" elfin ^ 

Eithinyn" uoleit" mur greit tarw trin 


Disgynsit en trwm yg kesseuin 
Gwerth med yg kynted a gwirawt win 
Heyessyt y** lavnawr rwg dwy vydin 380 
Arderchawc varchawc rac gododin^^ 
Eithinyn^® uoleit^^ mur greit tarw trin 

1 RaoTuan, 1, 2, 8. • I, 8. " Rhyngiawr, 8, 5. * Qwych, 
1,2,8, »I,8. 'Trwii, 1. ' Rhodda, 8. » Pfin, 1, 2, 8. 
• A phyt, 2, 8. w I, 8. " Wrthyt, 2. » Y Iwry, 1, 2, 4 ; 
o Iwrw, 8 ; y Iwrw, 6, 6. ^ F mae y Hindi fiaenorol ar ot hon yn 
1, 8, 6. i« Eithin yn 1, 2, 3, 5; eithynynt, 4. " Noloit, 1 ; 

oleit, 2, 8, 5 ; voleit, 3, 4 ; un yw^r penuill hwn a*r ddau ftatdynd 
yn 1. " A, 8. ^' Nid yw y ban hwn yn 1, 2, 8. " Eithyn 
yn, 1, 2, 8, 5. » Noleit, 1 ; oleit, 2, 8, 5. 



Diagynsit en trwm rac alauoed^ wyrein* 
Wyre Ihi Uaes ' ysgwydawr 
Yagwyt vriw rac biw beli bloedvawr 385 

Nar od uch' gwyar fin* festinyawr 
An deliit ^ kynllwyt y ar • gynghorawr 
Gorwyd gwareurffirith ^ rin ych eurdorchawr ® 
Twrch goruo amot emiaen ystre ystrywawr 
Teilingdeith • gwrthyat gawr 390 

An gelwit e nef bit atkledliawr ^^ 
Emyt *^ ef krennit e gat waewawr 
Oat vannan " ^r adut ** dotvawr ** 
No ^ chynhennit na bei Ua idaw Uawr 


Am drynni drylaw drylenn 395 

Am Iwys am diffwya dywarchen 

' AlavYodd, 1 ; alaved, 2, 3. ' Lliaws, 6. " Nar odduch, 

1, 2; na roddych, 3. « Ffin, 1, 2, 8. " Delut, 1; delyd, 

3; denlut vel delut, 5. • Yar, 1, 2, 3. ' Qwareeusrith, 2, 3; 
gwareuB rith, 4; gware rith, 6; nid yto rith ynb. ^ Un ytbeur- 
dorchawr, I ; un y tli curdorckawg, % 3 ; riu ych ourdorchawc, 4 ; un- 
yth ych eurdorchawc, 5 ; rin eurdorchawr, 6 ; nid yw y han hwn 
yn 8. ^ Toiling deith, 4. i» Achlodawr, 1, 2, 3, 5. ^^ Y 
myt, 4. ^Cat nannan, 1| 2, 3; oadvannau, 5; catvanneu, (dot- 
vannan,) 6. ^ Yra elut, 1 ; yr & elut, 2, 3 ; er a dut, 4 ; yr a dut, 5 ; 
er a olat, 6. ^^ Clot Yawr, 4, 6. " Ny, 1, 2, 4; ni, 3. 
* Diagynsit in trwm in aUuoed dwyrem, Oordi. Mael* 


Am * gwydaw gwallt e ar ' benn 

Y ' am wy r * eryr gwydyen 

Gwyduo* neus amuc ac® wayw'' 

ArduIIyat ® diwyllyat e® berchen 400 

Amuo moryen*® gwenwawt*^ 

Murdyn" a chyvrannv penn 

Prif eg weryt^' ac an nerth" ao am hen*^ 

Trywyr^* yr^^ bod bun brat wen 

Deudec gwenabwy vab gwen ^' 405 


Am drynni" drylaw drylenn 
Gweinydyawr ysgwydawr yg gweithyen*® 
En aryal cledyuaP^ am benn 
En Uoegyr drychyon rac trycbant ^ unben 
A dalwy ^^ mwng bleid heb prenn ** 4lo 

En e** law** gnawt gwychnawt eny ^ lenn 

1 A, 1, 2, 3 " Yar, 2; i rp, 3; y rel i ar, 5; lap e, 6. » I, 

3, 6. * Awyp, 1, 2, 3, 6. • Gwydu, 4. • Ae, 1, 2, 3, 6. 

^ Waen, 1, 2, 3, 6; vaew, 6. » Arddwliad, 3. • I, S. w Mop- 

■' Cadval, %, *■ Racdry chant, 1, paedpycliant, 2; V oe<ld dry- 

chant, 3; pydpychant, 6. ** Daly, 5. •* Ponn, 1, 2, 5, 6. ** Eno, 
4. ■• Glaw, 1, 2, 6; gwlaw, 3. ^ Yn y, 1, 2; yn I, 3. 



* gyurang' gwyth* ao* asgen 
Trenghis ny diengis bratwen 


Eurar * vur caer krysgrwydyat • 

Aer cret ty na thaor^ aer vlodyat^ 416 

Un* ara ae ^® leissyar " argatwyt** 

Adar brwydryat ^^ 

Syll virein neas adrawd a vo mwy 

O damweinnyoit ^* Uwy 

Od amluch Uiuanat 420 

Neus adrawd a vo mwy 

Enawr " blygeint " 

Na bei kynhaweP'^ kynheilweing*®* 

» Nid yv y» 1, 2, 8, 6. ■Gyvrang, 1, 2, 3, 6; gynrang, 8. 
» awych, 4. * Ag, 1. • Ac ar, 6. • Yagrwydiat, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
' Ohaer, 1, 2, 8, 5. ^ ^q vlotlyut, 1,2; acflodiad, 3 ; aer olodiat 6. 
• Yn, 1, 2, 3, 0. w Ai, 6. » Lyssup, 1, 2, 3, 6; Iciaayp (lavur- 
leissyar,) 6. ^ Ar gatwyt, 1.2. *^ Crwydryar, 1 ; crwydryat, 2; 
crwydrad, 8; brwydryar, 4; crwydryar al. crwydrad, 5. ^* Ddan- 
wynnyeit, 6; nid yw y han hwn naV ddau ganlynd yn 1, 2^ 3. 
" Yn llawr, 6; en awr, 8. " Bylgeint 6, 6. ^ Cynhafal, 1, 

2, 8, 5; kynawel, 4. ^« Cynheilw, 1, 2, 3, 5. 

* Eur ar mur caer crisguitat 

Dair caret na hair air mlodyat 

Un S sarasecisiar argouuduit 

Adar bro uual pelloid 

Mirein nys adrawd a uo by v o dan guenneit 

Lai dani lun luch liuanat 

Y aODODIN. 39 


Pan vuost di * kynnivyn * clot 

En amwyn tywyssen gordirot 425 

haedot en gelwit ' redyrch * gwyr not 

Oed dor diachor* diachor din drei* 

Oed mynut wrth olut ^ ae kyrchei 

Oed dinas ® e vcdin ae ® cretei 

Ny elwit gwinwit men na bei 430 

Ket*® bei" cann wr" en vn ty 
Atwen ovalon *^ keny 
Pen gwyr" tal being ^* a dely 


Nyt wyf vynawc blin 

Ny dialaf vy ordin *• 436 

Nys adraut a uo biu in dit plomicit 

Na bei cinaual cynelueit Oorch, MaeL . 

Nys adrawd gododin 

In dit pleigbeit 

Na boi cynbaual citelnat Ih, 

^ I, 1, 2, 3, 6. 'Cynnyvin, 1; cynnypin, 2, 3; kynnimyn, 5. 

• Gelwir, (gelwid,) 6. * Edrych, (redyrch,) 6. • Oedd drei 

dor (diachor oedd dor,) 6. ^ Un yw y ddwy Itnell hyn yn 1, 2. 

3, 5; fd ymat O haedot (haeddod,3; haedod, 5;) diachor (ddiachor, 
3;) din drei, (dre, 6;) diachor diachor, 8. ' Wrtholut, 2. 'Dl- 
was, 1, 2, 3 ; divas, (dinas,) 6. • Ae i, 1, 3; ac i, 2, 6. ^^ Cyt, 1, 2, 
3, 6. "Bei, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Cannwr, 1; cannwr, 2, 3. 

" O valon, 2. " Pen y gwyr, 1, 2, 3. " Talbeing, 1, 2, 3. 

^^Nid yw y llinell hon ^ 1, 2, 3, 4. 


Ny chwardaf y * ohwerthin 

A dan' droet' ronin 

Ystynnawc vyg glin * 

A bundat ^ y 

Enty^deyeryn 440 

Oadwyn heyernyn 

Am ben vyn ^ deulin 

O ved o vuelin® 

gatraeth werin ^ 

Mi na ^^ vi ^^ aneurin 445 

Ys gwyr talyessin 

Oveg ky wrenhin " 

Neu cheing ^* e " ododin 

Kynn gwawr dyd dilin 


Goroled^^ gogled gwr ae goruo 460 

Llary vronn haeladon ^^ ny essyllut^^ 

1 1, 8. « Adan, 1, 2. » Draed, 1, 2, 3, 5. * Fy nglin , S. 
^ Bun ddad, 3; nid yw y ban hwn yn i, 6, 7. ' Yn y ty, 1, 2, 3. 
' Vy, 1, 2, 8. ^Nidywy ban hum yn 1,2, 3, i, » Wnin, 1, 
2, 3 ; nidywy llxnell hon vn 6. ^^ Jl na, 1, 2 ; a wna, 3, 6. " I, 
5. " Cyvrenhin, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; vel oyfrennin, 5. >> Chenig, 1.2; 
chynig, 3. ^^Nid yv yn 1, 2, 8, 5. ^'awroledd, 3, 5. 

u HaeUd, 2; haeU don, 6. ^ YasyUuc, 6. 


Nyt emda^ daear nyt emduo' 

Mam mor^ eiryan gadarn haearn gaduo 

uertli e cledy f claor o * hatnuo 

O garcbar amwar ^ daear em ^ duo 466 

O gyvle angheu o anghar dut 

Keneu vab Uy warcli dihauarch drut ' 


Nyt ef borthi® gwarth gorsed* 

Senyllt ae ^® lestri Ilawn med 

Oodolei " gledy f *^ e ^^ gared 460 

Godoloi " lomein *** e *® ryuel 

Dy fforthsei ^^ lynwyssawr *® oe ^' vreych 

Rao bedin ododin ^ a brennych 

Gnawt eno '* neuad vyth meirch 

Gwyar a gwrymseirch 405 

Uf u. -' Dyphorth sen, x, ^, o, u; ujpiiuruieiy «| u* — j u 

muyasaur, 1, 2, 3; yn mwysawo, 5. "* O, 1, 2, 8, 6. * Gwaw- 
dodin, 3. » Yn y, 1, 2, 8. 


KeingyelP hiryell oe law 

Ac en elyd bryssyaw 

Gwen ao ymhyrdwen hyrdbleit 

Disserch a sorch ar tro ' 

Gwyr nyt oedyn drych draet ' fo* 470 

Heilyn acbubyat pob bro 


Llech leutu^ tut leu^ leudvre 

Oododin ^ ystre 
Ystre ragno ar y anghat ® 
Angat gynghor e ^ leuuer oat 475 

Oangen ^® gaerwys 

Keui *^ drilly wys " 
Tymor dymhestyl ^' ty mhestyl dyiuor 
E " beri restyr rao riallu 
O dindywyt**^ yn dyvu 480 

Wyt *• yn dy wovu *' 

* ijiwawaou/u, u. " i\ia yw y oan nwn yn i, '^c, o. ' i, x, y, o. 
w Cangeu, 2, 3. " Ceny, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Duliwys, 1, 2, 8, 5; 
drill wys, 6. i> Nid yw Tymor dymhestyl yn 3. ^^ I, 3; i efcy, 5. 
" dindovyt, 1 ; odin dovy t, 2, 3, 5. " Wyh 2. ^' Dy uovu, 
1 ; dy uosu, 2; dywo dyvu, 4; dyuofu. 6; MMf yw han hwn yn 3, 
ae y mat arwydd aneglurdeb amo yn 2. 

oc y SUM arwydd aneglurdeb amo yn 2. 


Dwys yd wodyn * 
Llym yt wenyn 
Llwyr genyn Uu 

Ysgwyt rugyn 485 

llao tarw trin 
Y dal vriw' vu* 


Erkryn ^ e * alon ar * af (ar) • 

Er y^ brwydrin trin trachuar 

Kwr e vankeirw ® 490 

Am gwr e vanncarw ® 

liyssed brych briwant ^® barr 

Am bwyll am disteir am distar** 

Am bwyll am rodic" am rycliward" 404 

Ys bro ys ** brys treuUyawt rys en riwdrec ** 

> Uodyn, 1,2; foddyn, 5. ' Dalfriw, 8, 6. • Er kryn, 8. 

< O, 3. » Nid ywynl,2, 3, 4. « Araf, 1, 2, 5; afar, 8; 

araf, 4. ' Y, 8; ery, 4. ' Van oeirw, 1 ; nid yv y han htm 

y» 2, 8. • Van cnrw, 2, 8. *• Driwaut, 6. " Nid yw v 

ilinrll kon yn 1, 2, 8, 4. " Rhodri, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Rychwedd, 
2, 3 "' Ys broya, 1, 2, 5; ysbroys, 3. " Rhin dree, 1, 2, 3,- 
rliindrec, 5, 

* Lech lend ud tut leu ure 

Oododin stre stre 

A neat ancat oyngor cyngor 

Temestyl tranieryn lestyr trameryn 

O dindywyt en dyvwn (dyowu 1) 

Scuyt gnigyii irac taryf trun tal triv (briw 1.) bu. 

Ooreh Mael, 


Ny* hu wy* ny gaffo e* neges 
Nyt anghwy a wanwy^ odiwes 


Ny mat wanpwyt ysgwyt 

Ar gynwal • camwy t 

Ny mat dodes y' yordwyt mo 

Ar vreichir mein-Uwyt^ 

C^ell e baladyr gell 

Oellache^ obeli* 

Y mae dy wr ene *• gell 

Yn cnoi anghell 506 

Bwch" bud oe law" idaw 

Poet" ymbell angell" 


Da y doeth " adonwy at wen 
Ym adawssut" wenn faeli bratwen 

> Nia, 8. ^Nidywygairhwhynl, 2, 8, 6. » I, 8, 6. 

^ O fanny, 1, 2, 3; o vann y vol o fan, 5; a wa mvy, 6. ' Gry- 

mal, 1, 2, 8; grymal vel grymial, 5. ' I, 8. ^ Nid yw y gwt- 
ddiU o'r pennUl yn 3. ^ Hfid yw yn \, % >Obell, I, 2. 

M Yn y, 1, 2, 6. " Bwoh ant bwcb, 2; bwoh, 5. >* Lawr, 2. 
u Poet poet, 1, 2, 6. ^* Nid yw ynl,7. ^^Daeth, 1,2, 6; nul 
yv y pennill yma yn 8. ^* Ym a dawiiyt, 1, 2; ymadawvyt, 5. 

Y aODODIN. 45 

Gwnelut Uadut ^ Uosgut 510 

No moryen ny waeth " wnelut 

Nj deljeist nac eithaf na chynhor ^ 

Ysgwn drem * dibennor 

Ny weleist e morchwyd mawr marchogyon 

Wynedin ® my • rodin nawd y Saesson* 616 


Gododin^ gomynaf dy blegyt 

Tynoeu* dra thrumein ^® drum essyth** 

Gwas chwant y " aryant heb ^' emwy t ** 

O gussyP** mab dwywei*' dy wrhyt 

Ny t oed ^^ gynghorwann ** 620 

Wael ^^ y ^ rao tan " veithin 

1 Leadut, 1. ' Naeth, 1, 2 ; vaeth, 6 ; waeth (uaeth, 6.) > Chyng- 
hor, 1, 2. * Drein, 1, 2, 5. ' Ny leddin, 1, 2, 6 ; wy nedin, 
4, 6. • Ny, 2, 4. ' Gwawdodyn, 8. ' Gofynaf, 6. • Tyno 
eu, 1 s ty noeu, 2. '® Thrinoeiii, 1 ; thrinyein^ 2, 8 ; thrinvein, 5. 
" Drinneasyt, 1, 2, 8, 6. " I, 3. " Hem, 8. " Ym- 

wyt, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Gyasu, 4. " Dwyre, 1, 2, 8, 6. '^ Ced, 
6. '8 Gyngor uann, 1 ; ynghoraan, 2 ; gynghorwan, 8 ; gyng- 
horfan, 6. '» Uaol, 1, 2; had, 6. » JV^ia yir yn 1, 2, 8, 6. 

" Un, 1, 2, 8. 

* Da dyvot adonwy adonwy am adauisut 

A wnelei yratwen gwnelut lladut llosgut 

Ny ehetweist nao eithaf na diynnor fchyngor, 1.) 

Yigwn tref dy bcuwel (bennol, 1,) ni woleis or mor 

Bwyr mor marchauc a yei waeth no odgur. OoreK* MaeL 


O lychwr y ^ lychwr Uuch bin ' 
Lluchdor y' borfor* beryeriu* 
Llad gwawB ' gwan maws mur ^ trin 
Anysgarat^ ac • vu *• y nat ^^ ao aneurin " 526 


Kywyrein ketwyr ky wrennin " 
E " gatraeth gwerin fraeth fysgyolin^® 
Gwerth med yg kyuted a gwirawt win 
Heyessit e lavnawr rwng dwy vedin 
Arderchauc varchawo rao gododin ^^ 590 

Eithinyn*' voleit" murgreit** tarw trin 


Kywyrein ketwyr ky wrenhin ^ 
Gwlat atvel** gochlywer" eu** dilin** 

U, 8. « Luthbio, 1, 5; luthvin, 2; IwUifin, 3; Iwch bin, 6. 

» I, 8. * Dor for, 8. • Beryenin, 4. • Gnaws, 1, 

2, 3; graws, 5. ' Qwjr, 4, • Anys garat, 1. • Nid yv y 
aair hvm yn 1, 2, 8. i» Un, 4, 6. " Ynat, 1,2,5; yn ad, 8. 
^ Nid yw ac yn 8 ; y mae y pennill hton yn I y9i cyrhaedd at 
ynial yn y chweched canlynol, os nid at cyifro oat ar ddiwcdd yr un- 
fed ar ddeg, "cynrennin, 1, 2, 8, 5; "1,8. " Wyj^giolin, 8, 
'* Gwawdodin, 8. ^' Eith iuyn, 1; eith iwyn, 2; eithin yn, 8, 6. 
18 Uoleit, 4 ; noleifc, 4. i> Mur greit, 1, 2, 8, 6. » Cynrenhin, 1, 2, 

3, 5. ^ Atvet, 1, 5; atuet, 2; adued, 8. » Gochlywet, 1, 2, 
3, 5 ; gyohly wer, 6. ** Ei, 2. ** Dilyn, 4 ; y mae arwydd coU 
rhwAy y gair hvm aV neiof y% 8. 


Dygoglawd * ton bevy r beryerin 

Men' yd ynt' eilyassaf * elein 535 

O brei* vrych ny welych Weyelin* 

Ny chemyd^ haed ud® a gordin 

Ny phyrth mevyl moryal eu dilin 

Llavyn * durawt *" barawt e *' waetlin ** 


Ky wyrein ketwyr ky wrenhin 540 

Gwlat atvel gochly wer eu dilin *' 

Ef Uadawd a chymawn ^* a Ilain 

A charnedawr tra gogyhwc*' gwyr trin 


Ky wyrein *• ketwyr hyuaruuant ^' 

Y gyt*® en un vryt*^ yt gyrchassant 545 

1 Dy goglawd, 1, 2, 8. " Mein, 2, 3. » Ydynt, 1, 2, 3. 

* Heliessynt, 8; beliea^nt eilyanaf, 4; eliasBaf, 5. ' Bei, 3. 

* Ueyelin, 1 ; lleyelin, 2, 8, 5. ' Ghenyt, 2, 8, 5. ^ Haedud, 
1, 2,:8, 6, 8. » Dawn, 6. ^ Ourat, 4. " 1, 8. " Uaeth Un, 1 . 2, 
yn 4, y mtie y ddwy lindl olaf o\ pennill canlynol wedi eu hychwa; 
neffu at hwn, " Nid yw y ddwy Until hyn yn 2, 8, 4. ^^^Cham- 
mawn, 8, 5. ^ Gogyhne, 1, 2, 3; gogyhue, 6; gogyhwe (gogy 
hwc, 6.) w Cywrein, 1, 2, 8. ^^ Cyvarvuant, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Ygyt, 
1 ; ygcyt, 2; ynghyd, 3, 6. » Unvryt, 1, 2, 3. 


Byrr eu hoedyl hir eu hoet ar eu oarant 
Seith gymeint o loegrwys a ladassant 
gyvryssed^ gwraged gwyth' a wnaethant 
Llawer mam ae deigyr ar ^ y ^ hamrant 


Ny wuaethpwyt neuad mor dianaf 660 

Lew mor hael baran Uew Uwybyr vwyhaf ^ 

A chynon laryvroun adon ® deccaf 

Dinas y dias ar llet eithaf 

Dor angor bedin bud ' oilyasBaf 

Or^ Bawl a weleis ac a welav 666 

Ymyt • en emdwyn ^® aryf gryt gwryt gwryaf 

Ef lladei oswyd a llavyn Uymaf 

Mai brwyn ^* y t gwydynt rac y *^ adaf 

Mab klytno clot hir^^ canaf 

Yty " or clot heb or heb** eithaf *• 660 

» Qyuryied, 1 ; gywrysod, 2, 3, 6. " Gwych, 1, 2, 8, 6. * Nid 
ywyni. < £i, 1 , 2, 8, 4. << Mwyaf, 1, 2, 3, 6; vwynaf, 8. 'A 
doa, 1, 2f 6; ar don, 8. ' Nid yw y gair kwn yn 2. ^ T&t, I, 2, 
8, 6. » Ymmyd, 8 ; y myt, 4. " Yn dwyn, 6. "0 brwyp, 2. 
»I, 8. »01othlr,l. "Yty,l,2, 8; iti,6. " Oreb, 6. 
i« Srtheiaf, 6. 



O winveith a medweith ' 
Dygodolyn ' gwnlleith ' 
Mam hwrreith 

Eidol enyal 
Ermygei rac vre* 666 

Bac bronn budugre 
Breein' dwyre 

Wybyr ysgynnyal 
Kynrein en kwydaw • 
Val glas heit '' arnaw 67o 

Heb giliaw gyhaual* 
Synnwyr ystwyr ystemel" 
Y ar ^® weillyon ^* gwebyl ^' 

Ac ardemyl gledyual 
Blaen ancwyn *^ anhun '* 676 

Hediw ** an ^^ dihun 

Mam *' reidun *® rwyf trydar 

1 MeddTcith, 1, 2, 8. ' Dygoddolyn, 1, 5; djgodd o lyn, 3. 
> Gwn leith, 1, 2, 3, 5. < Raovre, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Brein, 2, 3. 

•Cynydaw, 1, 2, 3, 6. ^ aiasheid, 3. » Gyhaual, 4. » Ys- 
temet, 1,2; ystymmcid, 3. *® Yar, 1, 2, 6 ; yr, 3. " Neilyon, 
1,2,3,6. "Gwevyl, 2,3. " Anewyn, 1. ^* Nid yw 

hw% yn 4. " Hedin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. " Ar, 1, 2, 3, 6. i' Nam, 
6. » Reiddyn, 1. 




O winveith a medweith ^ yd' aethant 

E ' genhyn* llurugogyon 

Nys gwn Ueith Uetkynt 580 

Oyn Uwyded * eu Ueas dydaruu 

Bao catraeth oed fraeth eu Ilu 

O osgord vynydawo • wawr' dru 

O drychant namen on gwr ny dyyu * 


O winyeith ^ a medveith ^® y t gryssy assant 685 

Gwyr en reit moleit eneit dichwant 

Gloew dull y " am druU yt" gy tvaethant *^ 

Gwin a med^^ amall^' a amucsant^^ 

O osgord vynydawo*' am*® dwyf *• atveillyawe ** 

A rwyf a goUeis om >* gwir garant 590 

1 Meddveith, 1, 2, 8, 5. * Ydd, 1,3. « I, 8. « Oynhon, 
1, 3, 6. ' Lwyrcd, 2, 3; llwydred (llwyrcd, 6.) 'Vynyddawr, 
1, 2, 3, 5. ' Vawr, 1, 2, 3, 4. ^ {/^ pennill yw kwn, a*r ped- 
war eanl^ yn 1. * Winweitb, 5. ><» Modweith, 5. ^^ I, 3. 
" Drulyt, 1, 2 ; detruU yd, 3. ^> Qy vaethant, 8. ^^ Mol, 1, 2, 8, 5. 
^ A nial, 1, 2, 8, 6; a mal anal, 5. ^* A muesant, 1 ; amwoeant, 2, 
8, 6; a amuesant, 4; a amusoant, 8. ^ Yyoydawr, 2, 8, 5. 
» An, 4 ; an (an, 60 » Duy, 1 ; dwy, 2, 3, 5. » AtfyUawr, 
1,2,8,5. »Am, 1, 2, 8. 


O diychan riallu yt grjssyassant 

Gatraeth tru namen yn gwr ^ nyt atcorsant ^ 


Hv bydei yg kywyrein ' pressent mal * pel 
Ar y '^ e hu * bydei '' ene ' uei aire 

Hut amuo ^ ododin ^^ 596 

O win a med en dieding^* 
Yng ystryng ystre 
Ac adan gatyannan^' cochre 
Veirch marchawc godrud e more " 


Angor dewr daen 600 

Sarph seri raen 
Sengi wrymgaen" 
Emlaen bedin* 

1 Nid yw V gair Kw% y» 4. ■ Atoorasant, i\un%fw k%m oV penr 
nUl eanlynd y» 8. ' Ygoyvreln, 1, 2, 8, 6; ynghywrein, 6. 

* Mab, 1, 2, 8, 5. U, 8. • Ehu, 1, 5; echo, 2; echw, 8, 5. 

' Deddei 1. » Yn y, 1, 2; oni, 8. » A mug, 6. i» Wawdo- 
dyn, 3, 6. " Diedin, 8; ddiedin, 6. " Catvannan, 5. 

'* Ym more, 3; emore, 4; y more vel ym more, 6. " Uiym 

gaem, 2, 8. 

* Angor deor dain 
Sarff safTwy graen 

Anysgoget, (anysgoo IJ) vaen blaen bedin. GorcK, Mad, 
* Nid ffw jr gtAr hum meum banmnt eraUl. 


Arthi arwynawl drussyawr' dreissyawr 
Sengi waewawr' 005 

En dyd cadyawr^ 

Yg dawd gwernin 
Eil nedic ^ nar ^ 
Neus due drwy var 
Gwledy'^adar 610 

Kywir • yth elwir oth *• enwir weithret 
Bactaf ^^ ruyuyadur mur catuilet ^' 
Merin a madyein ^' mat yth anet* 


Ardyledawc ^* canu kyman ^* oaffat ^® ei5 

Eetwyr am gatraeth a wnaeth brithret 

1 Ayth, 1, 2; atb, 3; aeth vel ath, 5. * Druasyat, 1, 2, 4 ; drw- 
aiad, 3, 5. * Uaonawr, 1; vaonawr, 2, 8, 5; wuywuwr, 6. * Oad- 
wyiiawr, 1, 2, 3, 6. » Kodio, 2, 3, 5. • NaV 3; yn ar, 6. 

' I, 3. " Nid yw y gair hwn yn 1, 2, 3, 6. » Gwir, 3. ^ xVid 
yip yn 1, 2, 3. " Rhagan, 1; rhangaf, 2; rhyngaf, 3; raccaf, 4; 
ragaf al. ibyngaf al. ractaf, 5; rhagaf (rhagor, rbactaf,) 6 ^Cad- 
wilied, 3j cadvilet vel oadwilicd, 5. '* Madyon, 1,2. '^ Ar 

dyledawr, 1,2; ardyledawr, 5. ^' Cymain, 3; cyfan, 5. ^ Ca- 
ffed, 8, 5. 

* Enwir yt elwir oth gywir (al. guir) weithret (al. guerit) 

Enwir yth eluir guerit, 1. 

Kewir ytli elwir gywir (al. oth gyuir) weithret 

Rector rwyvyadur (al. liuiadur at cindir) mar pob klwet (al. 

uivetal. kyvyeith) 
Meryn mab madyeith mat yth anet Chrck* Mad, 


Brithwy^ a wyar' sathar sanget 

Sengi wit^ gwned^ bual am dal med^ 

A chalaned kyuurynged ^ 

Nyt ^ adrawd * kibno wede kyffro 620 

Ket • bei kymun *^ keui ** dayret*'* 


Ardyledawc canu kyman" ovri^* 
Twrf tan a tharan a ryuerthi 
Gwrhyt arderchawc varchawc mysgi 
Ruduodol ^^ ryuol a oiduni 025 

Gwr gwned ^^ divudyawc dimyngyei *' 
Y gat or^® meint gwlat yd y klywi'* 

» Britli, 1, 2, 8, 5. ■ Uyar, 1. » Senglwyd, 8, 5. < Qwyn- 
edd, 1, 2, 8, 5. ' Dalmedd, 1, 5. * Cyuyringet, 1 ; oyniringet, 
2; cywiringed, 8 ; kyiiirynged, al. cyfrtnged, 5. ' Ni, 6. ' At- 
drawdd, 1. • Cyftro cad, 1, 2, 8, 6, 6. " Cymain, 3. " Cein, 
1, 2, 8, 5. " Daret, 1, 2, 3, 5; yn- 1, 2, 8, 6, y mete wedy cyffro 
cat yn dyfod yn olaf oV cwhL ''^ Gyfan, 5. " O vri, 1, 2, 8, 4. 
" Rudd vcdol, 1 ; rhudd fedd, 8. " Gwynedd, 8. ^' Dimyn- 

yge!, 8. " Er, 8. " Yt glywei, 5. 

* Erdyledaf canu oiman cafti 

In cetwir am gatraeth ri gnanaid brit ret 

Britgue ad guiar sathar sanget 

Segit guid gnnet dial am dal med 

O galanet oiuei (dyes, 1.) riget 

Nis adrawd {nid yvo hvm yn 1.) dpno gwedi ky0^ eat 

Ceuei cimnn idau cini daeret. Ooreh, Mael, 


Ac* ysgwyt* ar y ysgwyd hut' arolli 
Wayw * mal gwin gloew o wydyr lestri 
Aryant am yued^ eur dylyi 690 

Owinvaeth oed waetnerth ' vab ' Uywri 


Ardyledawo canu claer orchyrdon*' 


Dimcones ^® lovlen benn eryron 

Llwyt " ef gorevvwy t y ysgylvyon " Cd6 

Or a aeth gatraeth o eur dorchogyon ^ 

Ar neges mynydawc mynawc maon 

Ny doeth^* en diwarth o barth ^ vrython 

Ododin *• wr bell well no Ohynon* 

1 Ao, 2, 8, 5. > Tig«7dd, 8. > Hut a roll, 1, 2; aroli vel 
arhoU, 5. « Llaen, 1, 2; Uaia, 8, 5. • Y ved, i, 6. • Vael- 
nerth, 2, 8. ' Nid ywynl^2,S. " Orchorddion, 8, 5. 

» Ayon, 1, 2, 8, 5. i* Digones, 6. " Glwyt, 8 ; rhwng y 

gair hwn a*r canljffud y mae arwtfdd coU yn 1, 2, 8. '* ^^' 

oljon, 1, 2; wolioa, 8; y^glyfyoo, 4; yigyflion, 6. ^ Aur- 

dorohogion, 1> 2, 8; eurdorchogyon, 4. ^^ Ddaeth, 2, 8, 5; 

^ i^Ttrf yw yii 2, 8. ^ Wawdodyn, 8; %% wakenir y pennillum 
oddiyma hyd ddiwedd yr awdl yn^ 1. 

* Brdyledam canu i cioon oigaerea 
In guorth ao cin bn diuant dUeit aeron 
RiueMit i loflen ar pen erirhon 
Luit em rannuit guoren buit i igliuon 
Ar lee minidawc marohauc maon 

•• •'• ••• ••• 

Oed odit imit o barth Yrython 

Qododin o bell guell no obeoon. 6'orcA. Mael» 



Ardyledawc canu kenian * ky wreint * 640 

Llawen Uogell byt' bu didichwant* 
Hu niynnei engkylch * byt eidol anant * 
Yr eur a meirch mawr a mod ^ medweint 
Namen ene ^ delei ® o vy t hoffeint 
Kyiidilic aoron wyr enouant^ 046 


Ardyledawc canu claer orchyrdon ^^ 
Ar neges mynydawc mynawc maon 
A merch eudaf hir dreis ** gwananhon ^' 
Oed porfor gwisgyadur dir amdrychyon 


Dyfforthes *' meiwyr " molut nyuet 660 

Baran tan teryd ban gynnenet 

1 Cemann, 1; ceman, al. cyfan, 5. ' Cynreint, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Bu, 
5. * Ntd yw Hu mynnei engkylch byd yn 2, 8, 4. > Nid yw 

Rldol anant yn 4. • Meddw, 2, 8, 5. ' Yn y, 1, 2» 8, 6. 

" Ddylai, 5. ' En o iiant, 1 ; en o gant, 2; un o gant, 8; en e 

novant, al. un o gant, 5. ^' Orchorddion, 8, 5; ^^ Dieis, 1, 2, 8, 5; 
dreit, (drefa, 6.) ^ Gwanau hon, 1, 2, 8, 5. » Dypborthyt, 2. 
"Molnir, 1,2,8, 6. 

* Er dyledaf canu ciman ciguerenit 

Llawen llogell bit budit dit di. Goreh. MaeL 


Duw mawrth gwisgyssant ^ eu ' gwrym ' dudet 

Diw merchyr peri deint ^ eu calch doet * 

Divyeu bu diheu eu diuoet 

Diw gwener calaned amdyget ^ 055 

Diw sadwm bu divwrn eu kytweithret 

Diw 8ul eu Uavneu rud amdyget ^ 

Diw Uun hyt benn clnn gwaetlun gwelet 

Neus adrawd gododin ^ gwedy lludet 

Bac pebyll madawc pan atcoryet' 660 

Namen un gwr gant one ^® delhet 


Mochdwyreawc y " more 
Eynnif aber rac ystre 

iOi7aByaasant,4. >Y, 1,2, 8. " Ownn, 5. ^ Priddeint, 
8. * Calchdoet, 1, 2, 8, 5. < Amddygied, 8. ' Amdygied, 8. 
«» Gwawdodyn, 3. » Atgored, 8. " Yn y, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Ym, 
1, 2, 8, 5. 

* Ni forthint, neiri {nid yw hwn yn 1,) molut muet 

Rao trio rialla trin orthoret 

Tebihio tan teryd drui cinnenet 

Diu mawrth guiagassant eu coin duhet 

Dia merchyr bu guero eu citunet 

Diuyei cennadeu amodet 

Diu gwener oalanet a ciuriuet 

Diu Badum bu didvm eu oit gueithret 

Diu 8ul Utuoneu rud a at ranhet 

Diu llun hyt benn elun guaet lun guelet 

Nys adraud gododin guedy lludet 

Hir rao pebyll madauo pan atoorhet Ooreh. M<ul. 


Bu bwlch bu twlch tande 

Mai twrch y* tywysseist' vre 665 

Bu golut my nut bu llo 

Bu gwyar gweilch gwrymde '* 



O gynnu aber rao fin 

O dy wys yn ty wys yn dylin • 670 

Rao cant ef gwant gesseuin 


Mai yuet mod drwy chwerthin 

Oed Uew^ y Uadewch chwi dynin® 

Gledyual dywal fysgyolin 675 

^ Nid yiP y» 5. » Tywyaseist, 1, 2, 8, 4. • Owrwnde, 1,2; 
gwrwrodde, 8, 5. * Ym eJIln, 1, 2, 8. • Yn lyuys dylin, 1, 2, 8; 
yn lywys yn dllin, 6. • Nid yw yn 2, 8. ' Lew, I, 2, 8. • Dy- 

* Moch amireit i more 

I cinim a pherym rao stre 

Bu oioaroh gueir gniat 

Jg oin or or oat 

Cineillt ar garat 

I nit gene 

Bu gnolut minut bu lie 

Bu guanar gneilging gwrymde. Oor^, Mael, 


58 Y aODODIN. 

Oed mor diachor yt ladei 
Esgar gwr haual ^ en y ' bei* 


Disgynnwys en afiwys dra phenn 

Ny deliit ky wyt ' ky wrennin benn 

Disgiawr breint yu^ e lad ar gangen ' C80 

Kynnedyf y ewein esgynny ' ar ystre 

Ystwng kyn gorot goreu gangen 

Dilad dyleyn cathleu ^ dilen 

Llywy llyvroded rwych® ac asgen 

Anglas * asswydeu ^® lovlen 686 

Dyphorthes ae law luric wehyn 

Dy mgwallaw " gwledic dal ^ 

Oe brid*' brennyal 

1 Qybafel & gwr harel, 6. * Yn i, 8. > Gynjrt, 2, 3, 5; 

oyuyd, 6. « Ou, 8. * Gagou, 1, 2, 8. * Kflgyiiiun, 3, 5. 

7 Katlileu, 1, 2, 8. " Yrayok, 2, 3. • Angas, 8. >• Aa- 

awyden, 8; aaswyddeu, 8; a awyddea, 5. ^ Dymualau, 1, 2 ; 

2; dymwalaw, 8; dywallaw, 5. ^ Nid yw y»3. ^* Bridd,8; 
brit al. bridd, 6. 

• Mocb aruireitb i meitit pan era 

Cinerein i niidin 

O douia in towya milin 

Rao cant em guant ceseuin 

Oed mor guanauo idinin 

Mai iuet mod neu win 

Oed mor diaobar 

Yfc wanei ei^ar 

Uid alt guanar guitbyn. Oi>r€k, Mail, 

Y aODODIN. 59 


Eidol adoer ^ crei grannawr ' gwynn 

Dysgiawr pan vei bun barn benn 690 

Porchen meirch a gwrymsoirch ' 

Ac ysgwydawr yaen * 

Gyuoet a gyuergyr esgyn disgyn 


Aer dy wys ry ^ dy wys ry vel 

Gwlat gord garei ^ gwrd uedel 696 

Gwrdweryt' gwaet am iroed' 

Seirchyawr* am y rud*® yt ued 

Soingyat am seirch ^^ seiroh seingyat 

Ar delw Ueith dygia\vr^' Uudet 

Peleidyr en eis en dechreu cat 700 

Hynt am oleu bu godeu beleidryal ^^ 

1 Adrer, 8. * Granuawr, I, 2; graenawr, 8; graianfawr, al. 
granikwry 5. * Gwymseirch, 1. ^ ITid yw yn 6, ' Y, 
2; i, 8. • Gar ei, 6. ' Gwrd weryt, 1, 2, 8. ■ Iraedd, 1, 
2, 3; iryed, 4. > Seirchiawo, I, 2, 3, 5. ^^ Am gnidd, 1, 2, 8, 5; 
daw y ban Aw* or ol y eanlynol yn 1. ^* Veirch, 6, ^ Dryg- 
iawr, 1, 2, 3, 5. ^ Beleidryat, 1, 2, 3, 5. 

go Y aODODIN. 


Keint ^ amnat ' am dina ^ dy gell 

Ac ystauell yt uydei dyrllydei ^ 

Med melys maglawr 

Gwrys aergynlys * gan wawr ® 706 

Ket ^ Iwys lloegrwys lliwedawr 

By benyt ar hyt yd® allawr 

Eillt wyned kly were arderched ^ 

Gwananhon ^^ by t ved 

Savwy ** cadavwy " gwyned 710 

Tarw bedin treis trin teyrned 

Kyn kywesc ^^ daear kyn gorwed 

But orfiin ^^ gododin bed 


Bedin ordy vnat en agerw 

Mynawc lluydawc *• llaw chwerw 716 

' Seint, 1, 2, 3, 5. * Amnant, 1, 2, 8, 5 ; et omnawdd, 5. « Diva, 
1, 2, 5; difei, 3. « Dyrlyd ei, 1, (derllyddoi,) 3. » Aer gyuglys, 
1, 2, 3; aergynglwys, 4. « Vawr, 2. ' Cad, 8. 6. » Y, 1, 

2; i, 3, 5. I' Y ardderohedd, 1, 2, 4; i ardderchedd, 8. ^^ Guan 
an hon, 1; gwan anhon, 2, 3, 5. '^ £t aavy, 5. " Radanwy, 
1, 2, 8; rodanwy, 5; radanwy (radenny, oadauuy,) 6. ^ Cyn- 
nett, 1, 2, 8, 5; oyuett (cywett,) 6. ^* OrEn, 1, 2, 8; et orffin, 

5 ; oryn, 4; orfun, 6. ^ LnyddauOi 1» 2, 4, 5. 


Bu doeth a choeth a syberw 
Nyt oed ef wrth gyued gochwerw 
Mudyn geinnyon ar y^ helw 
Nyt oed ar lies bro pob delw 


An gelwir raor a chynnwr ym plymnwyt * 720 
Yn tryvrwyt' peleidyr peleidyr gogymwyt 
Goglyssur heym lliveit llawr ^ en assed 
Sychyn* yg gorun en trydar 
Gwr frwythlawn flamdur rac esgar • 


Dyfforthes cat veirch^ a chatseirch ^ 725 

Greulet^ ar gatraeth cochre 

Mae *^ blaenwyd bedin dinus ^* 

An " gelwir ny *' faw *• glaer fwyre ^^ 
Echadaf heidyn ^® haearnde ** 730 

^ Ar eu, 1, 2, 8; y ar y, 4. « Plymuyt, 2, 3; plymlwyt, 4. 

' Nhryoarwyd, 6. ^ Llaun, 1; llayn, 2, 3; Ilawn et llafb, 5. 

• Syrchyn, 1, 2, 3; syrthyn, 6; Jyrchyn (syohyn,) 6. • Al yii- 

rhydar, 6. ' Catveirch, 1, 2, 8. " Chadveiroh, 8; chat leirch, 
4. • Greolyd, 3. " Mac, 4. " Dinw, 2, 3, 5. " Gwyoh, 
1,2,8,6. M Guarthvre, 1, 2, 3, 5. " An, 6. " Wy, 5; 

nl, 3. >« Fan, 1. 2, 3, 6 ; flaw, 6. *' Pfwyre, 6. " Treu- 

ddyn, 2, 3, 5. ^ Haeam de, 1. 

2 F 



MynawG gododin traeth e annor ^ 

Mynawc am rann kwynhyator ' 

Bac eidyn aryal flam nyt atcor 

Ef dodes e dilis' yg kynhor^ 

Ef dodes rac trin' tewdor 7d6 

En aryal ar dy wal ' disgynnwys 

Can Uewes porthes mawrbwys ' 

O osgord yynydawc ny diangwys 

Namen vn® aryf • amdiffryf" amdiffwys^^ 


O goUet** moryet ny ^^ bu aessawr 740 

DyflForthyn traeth y ennyn ** Uawr 
By due ^^ oe lovlen glas lavnawr 
Peleidyr pwys preiglyn ** benn periglawr 

^ Traeth y annor, 2; traeth i annor, 3; traethyannor vel traethian- 
nor, 5; traetheannor, 0. * Cuyn hyator, 2. ' Ef dilys, 1, 2, 3, 5. 
* V geynhor, 1, 2; i geinhor, 3. ^ Trusi, 1, 2, 3, 5; ractrisi (rhag 
trin,) G. ^ Drywal, 1, 2, 3; arddywal, 5. ^ Mum bwys, 1, 2; 
niammwys, 3; mambwys & mamrowys, 5. ^ Yn, 1. * Arf, 3. 
i« Amddiffyrf, S. i> Amdiffwrf, 5. ^ Golet, 1, 5; goledd, 

2, 3. " Ni, 3. " Traethiennyn, 6, *• Rhyduo, 2; rhyddug, 
9 M Periglyn, 3. 


Y ar * orwyd erohlas penn wedawr* 
Trindygwyd ' trwch * trach y • lavnawr 746 
Pan* orvyd' oe gat ny ® bu foawr 
An dyrllys molet med melys maglawr 


Gweleis y • dull *® o benn tir adoun " 
Aberth am goelkerth a disgynnyn 
Gweleis oed kenevin ar dref redegein ^ 760 
A gwyr nwythyon *' ry goUessyn ** 
Gweleis gwyr duUyawr gan awr ^* adevyn '* 
A phenn dyvynwal a*^ breych** brein ae cnoyn 


Mat vydic *® ysgavynwyn asgwrn ^ aduaon ** 
Aelussawc ** tebedawc tra mordwy ^ alon 766 

^ Yar, 2; i ar, 3. * Penifeddawr, 1; penivudawr, 2; penu- 

fuddawr, S; penonedawr, 5; pennweddawr, 6. ' Trin digwrdd, 
1,2,3,6. *Nidywyni, » I, 8. • Par, 1, 2, 8. 'Or- 
wydd, 1, 3, 6; oniyd, 2. » Ni, 1, 3. > I, 3. " Dwll, 1, 3; 
dwll al. ei ddttll, 5. " Odren, 1 , 2, 8, 5. ^* Ffledegein, 1, 2, 
3, 5. '^ Unythlon, 1,2; wnythyon, 3; mwythyon, 4; unythyon 

ai. uftiddion, 5; nwython (mwythion,) 6. ^* Goleasyn, 1, 2, 3. 

" Aiir, 1, 2, 3. *• Addeuyn, 1, 2; addewyn, 8; a ddeuyn, 6. 

" litd yw yn 4. »» Brelch, 1, 2, 3, 4; vrycli, 6. " Mudic, 1, 
2, 8, 6. * Asgwm, 4. "* Addfaon, 6. ■ Ae lassawc, 1, 

2, 3, 4. ■• Tramordwy, 6. 


Gwrawl amdyvrwys goruawr y^ lu 
Gwryt yronn gwrvan' gwanan arnaw' 
Y ' gynnedyf disgynnu rac naw riaUu 
Yg gwyd gwaed a gwlat a gordiynaw' 
Garaf yy ® yudic Ueithic a yu anaw ^ 7G0 

Kyndilic aeron^ kenhan* lew 


Garasswn disgynnu ^® yg ^^ catraeth gessevin 

Gwert ^' med yg kynted a gwirawt win 

Garasswn neu chablwys ar Uain 

Kyn bu e" leas oe" las uffin" 766 

Garasswn eil clot dyfforthes gwaetlin 

Ef dodes e^* gledyf yg goethin 

Neus adrawd gwrhyt*^ rac gododyn 

Na bei mab keidyaw clot un gwr trin ^ 

1 1, 2, 3. ' Qurvan, 6. " Aruau, 6 ; nid yw y lUncU kou 
yn 1, 2, 8. « O, 2, 3. « Goniaiyuau, 1, 2, 3; gurtliyiiau, 

fBrcldiiiou, et gorddyfiiu, 5. * Dy, 1, 2, 3. ' Aiiau, 1, 2, 8. 
Aron, 1. » Cynon, 8, 6. " Ddeigynnu, 1, 2, 8. " Y, 1, 2. 

0, 8:yYeli,5. " Gwerth,!, 2, 8, 6. "»Y, 1,2, 8. >* Ae, 

1, 2, 8. " Wphin et uphin, 6. »• Y, 1, 2, 4 ; H, 8. ^ Qwr- 
tryd, 8. " Qwrtrin, 2, 8; nid yw y ban kwn yn 6. 

y GODODIN. 65 


Truan y w gennyf vy ^ gwedy ' lludet 770 

Godef gloes angheu trwy aDgkyffret' 

Ac eil trwm truan * gennyf vy gwelet 

Dygwydaw • an gwyr ny penn draet 

Ac ucheneit hir ac eilywet* 

En ol gwyr pebyr' temyr® tudwet 775 


Gwyr gorsaf gwryaf gwrd yg calet 

Ys deupo eu heneit wy wedy trinet 

Kynnwys yg wlat nef adef avneuet *• 


Ef gwrthodes ires tra gwyar Uyn 780 

Ef lladei val ** dewrduU ** nyt" echyn " 
Tavloy w ac ysgoth tavlei wydrin ^* 
A med rac tevrned tavlei vedin *® 


^ Nid ywyn \,2,Z. * Nid yw yn 6, * Amkyffrei, 4. 

« Trinaa, 1, 2, 8. ' Dygwyddai, 1, 2; digwyddai, 8. * AH 

olywed, 8; eilyret, 8. ' Pybyr, 1, 2, 8, 6. ■ Tymyr, 8. 

» J^id yw yn 6. ^« Anneuet, 1, 2, 3 ; arneuet, 8. " Nid yw 
yn6. " Dewr duU, 2, 8, 4, 6. " Nad, 6. " Ethyn, 4 ; 

echyn et erchyn, 5. " Vrwydrin, 5. *' Nid yw y han kwn yn 


Menit' y gynghor> men na lleyeri» 
Lliaws ao yei anwaws ^ ny t odewy t ^ 78^ 

Bac ruthyr bwyllyadeu' a chledyyawr 
Lliyeit bandit gwelir Uayar ^ Heir' 


Porthloed yedin 

Porthloed lain 

A llu* racwed*' 790 

En ragyrwed 

En dyd gwned 

Yg kyyryssed 

Buant gwychawc ^^ 

Gwede meddawt^ 796 

A med yuet 

Ny bu waret " 

An gorwylam ** 

Enyd frwy thlam ^ 

^ Meint, 6. ' Nid yw menit y gynghor yn I, 2, 8. ' Lava* 
rai, 1, 2, 8, 5. « Annaws, 1, 2, 3, 5. ' Edoint, 1, 2; ydyn\ 8; 
edewyt, i, 0; edeiut ot ydyn, 5. ' Dwyll yadUou, 1 ; bwyll y 

adeu, 2; bwys 'i adeu, 4. ' Laaar^ 6. * Lein, 1, 2, 8, 6. 

' A Uu, 1, 2, 8, 4. i« Raoned, 1, 2, 8. " Gwychawd, 1, 2, 8, 5, 
i» Medd-dawd, 8. ^ Uaret, I, 2. ^^ Gornylam, 1 ; gormylao, 
2,8 , 5; gorwylan, 4; goroyian, 5. ^ Ffrwythlawn, 5. 


Pan adroder torret ergyr ^ 800 

O veirch a gwyr tyngir tynget* 


Pan' ym dyvyd* Uiaws pryder 


Fun en ardec ^ 

Aryal redec ^ 805 

Ar hynt ' wylaw 


Ku carasswn 

Ac argoedwys 810 

Ouae *' gordy vnwys 
Y ^ emdullyaw ** 
Ef dadodes'^ rfrlluyd** pwys ar lies rieu 

wn, 5. w Oeleic, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Fan, 1, 2, 3; flkw, 6, 6. 

» Gwal, 1, 2, 8; Gwall, 6. " I, 8. " Em dulyaw, 1,2; 

ytiuldtiliaw, 8. " Dyddmles, 3. " Ar Iwydd, 1, 2, 8; ar Iluyd, 
4 ; ar Iwyd, 5. 


At dily vyn *• goet 

Ar diliw hoet 815 

Yr" kyvedeu 
Kyyedwogant ef an dyduc ar ' dan adloyw ^ 
Ac ar groen gwynn goscroyw • 


Gereint rac deheu^ gawr a dodet 

Lluch ^ gwynn gwynn • dwU • ar ysgwy t 

Yor yspar llary *® yor ** 821 

Molut mynut mor 

Gogwneif heissyllut ** gwgynei " gereint 

Hael mynawc oedut ^^ 


Diannot ^ e ^^ glot e glutvan ^' 826 

Diaohor angor ygkyman'® 

^ Ardulywn, 5; ar dilion, 6. * Or, 8. > At, 4. « Ad- 

tojw, 5. * Un yw y pennill hwn aV canlynol yn 1, 4. 

* Aoheu, 8. 7 Uwch, 1. " Nid ywynl,2, 8, 5. * Dull, 

2, 6. » Laiylw, 5. " Y or, i; nid yw yn 2, 3, 6. 

M Hdalrd, 8. » Ougyrei, 1, 2, 8, 5; gogwnei, 6. " Edut, 

4. uDiMinot,4. »0, 3. ^^ Ynglhytvan, 6. ^ Qoy^ 
nuMi, 1; anghTiiuui et angbyvein, 5. 


Diechyr eryr gwyr govaran* 

Trin odef eidef oed eiryan 

Bagorei veirch racvuan' 

En trin Uetvegin gwin o bann 8d0 

Kyn' glasved^ a glassu eu" rann 

Bu gwr gwled^od uch^ med^ mygyr o bann 


Dienhy t ® y ® bob Uawr llanwet ^^ 

W^ hual amhauaP' afneuet 

TwU tall " e " rodawr 835 

Oas o hir ** gwythawc 

Rywonyawo^' diffreidyeit *' 

Eil gweith gelwideint^® a mallet*' 

Yg catveirch ^ a seirch greulet 

Bedin agkysgoget yt'* vyd cat voryon 840 

Cochro Uanu bann" ry godhet^ 

1 Gonaran, 2, S. ' Rac vuan, 8. > Yn, 5. * Qlas 

vedd, 1, 2, 8. ' Yn, 1, 2, 8; nid yw y han hwn yn 5. * Uch, 
1, 2, 8, 5; oduoh, 8. ^ Bn gwr od nch gwledd medd, 6. 

" Dihenyt, 1, 4; dihenydd, 2, 8, 5. > I, 1, 2, 8; nu{ yw yn 4. 

w Llannet, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Y, 1, 2; i, 8. "Am haftil, 8. 

" Tal, 1 , 2, 3. " I, 3. " Ohir, 4. w Rhyvonyauc, 1, 2, 8, 6. 
" Diphrydyeit, 1 ; diphrueidyeit, 2, 8. i« Gelwiddent, 2, 3, 5. 

** A malct, 1, 2, 3, 5; amalet, 4. ^ Ygcatveirch, 1,2; yg cat 

veirch, 4. « It, 8. » Pan, 1, 2, 8, 4. « Rygoddet, 1, 2, 3. 



Trwm^ en trin a llavyn' yt lladei 

Gh^rw rybud o gat dydygei 

Oann' calan a darmeithei^ 

Ef gwenit ^ adan ® vab enrei 845 

Ef gwenit ^ adan dwrch trahawc ® 

Un riein a morwyn a mynawc 

A phan oed mab teym teithyawc 

Yng gwyndyt gwaod gly t • gwarodawo 

Kyn golo gwery t ar *® rud 860 

Llary hael etyynt ^^ digythrud 

glot a chet echyawo ^ 

Neut bed garthwys hir o dir rywonyawo^' 


Peis dinogat e vreith vreith 

O grwyn balaot ban ** wreith ** 856 

Ohwit chwit ** chwidogeith 

Oochanwn ^^ gochenyn wyth geith 

iTrum, 1, 2. *Llavynt4. *CaD,l,2,8, 4;CaDr, 8. « Ddar- 
luortkoi, 1, 2, 3, 4. ' Qwoinit, 1, 2, 8, 4; gwoint, 5. * A <lan, 
4. ' Gweint, 1, 5; gweinit, 2, 8. " liul yw y han hum yn 4. 
» Gwaetglyt, 4; gwaodlyd, 6. ^ At, 1, 2, 8. " Elwynt, 2. 8, 6. 
" Eiohiawg, 8 ; eichiwawo, 5. ^ Rhy Yonyawo, 1, 2, 8, 5. ** F^u, 
4. ^ Ureith, 1 ; vreith 2, 8. " Cbwnt, 1 1 chwni, 2, 8; ohwant, 
8; chwint, (ohwant, 6.) >^ Qoohanun, 2, 5. 


Pan elei dy dat ty e ^ helya 

Llath ar ' y ' ysgwyd Uory * eny Haw 

Ef golwi • gwn gogyhwch • fl60 

Giff gaff dhaly dhaly dhwo dhwo ^ 

Ef Uedi byso yng corwc® 

Mai ban* Uad llew Ilywywo*® 

Pan elei dy dat ty *^ e" vynyd 

Dydygei ef*' penn ywrch " pen gwy thwch " 

penn hyd 865 

Penn gnigyar vreith o *• venyd 
Penn pysc o rayadyr derwennyd" 
Or sawl yt*' gyrhaedei*' dy dat ty ae*® gic- 

wythwch** a Uewyn a Uwyuein 
Ny t angiiei oil ^ ny uei oradein 870 

U,l,2,8;7,4. «0r,5. * irtdvwynl,2,S. «Llwiy,8,5; 
lliiTy,l,2. "Oelwei, 4. ^Oogybuo, 1,2,8; gog7hwo,4. ^p^uo 
ddao, 1, 2, 8. " Ygoorao, 1, 2, 8. • Bar, 1, 2, 8, 6. *• Llya- 
lnc, 2, 8; Uywiog, 5. » Ti, 8. " I, 1, 2, 8. ^ J^id yw 
yn i. " Y narch, 1 ; y varch, 2 ; i varoh 8, 5. " Qwdd bwch, 
1; guyd huch, 2; gwydd-hwch, 8. ^' Ar, 8. ^' Derfenydd, 8. 
" A, 1, 2, 8. " Gyrchaeddei, 1, 2, 3 ; gyrchhaeddai, 6. » Ar, 
1, 2, 8. » Oieneln, 1, 2, 3. » Wyth wch, 1, 2, 8. " Anghei 
ol, 1; angheioly 2; angheuol, 8; anghei o, 5. 



Peum^ dodyw angkyvrwng' o angkyuarch 
Nym daw nym dyyyd' a uo trymach 
Ny magwyt yn neuad a vei lewaoh 
Noc ef nao yng cat a vei wastadach 
Ac ar ryt* benclwyt* pennawt^ oed e^ veirch 
Pellynio e® glot pellws • e ^^ galoh 876 

A chyn golo ^* gweir hir a dan " dy warch 
Dyrllydei^ vedgymf* on mab feraarch'^ 


Gueleys y dull *• o bentir a doyn ^' 
Aberthach coelcerth ^^ a emdygyn . 880 

Gueleys y deu oo ^ eu tre re ** ry gwydyn ** 
O eir nwython » ry godessyn 

» Pan, 1, 2, 8, 5. ■ Agcyvung, 1, 2, 8, 5. ■ Dovydd, 1, 2, 8. 
* Aryt, 1, 2; ar hyd, 3, 6. » Ben clwyd, 1, 2, 8, 5. • Pennant, 
1, 2, 8, 6. ' O, 2, 8, 5. « Y, 1, 2 ; ei, 8. » Pelln«, 1, 2, 8, 5. 
" Y, 1, 2; i, 8. " Cholo, 8. ^ Adan, 1 ; o dan, 8. " Dyr 
Uydei, 1. " Vedd gyrn, 1. >* Vonraroh &, Ferwaroh, 5 ; for- 
warcb, 8. ^* If id yw yga%rhw%y% 5. ^ Adoen, 1, 8; addoen, 
8; adoen/ortadoyn, 5. ^ Qoel oerth, 1, 2, 4. UAo2, 8. 

» Nid yw y gair kwn y% 1, 2, 8, 5. « awynydyn, 2. . ■• Nn- 
nython, 1, 2, 8; nyny&on et vanython, 5. 


Gueleys y wyr * tylluawr * gan waur a doyn' 
A phen dyuynwal vryoh brein ae knoyn * 


Gododin gomynnaf ' oth blegyt 885 

Yg gwyd* cant en aryal en^ emwyt® 

A guarchan * mab dwy wei da wrhy t 

Poot yno on vn tyno troissyt 

Er pan want maws raor trin^® 

Er pan aeth daear ar aneirin 800 

Mi neut^^ ysgaras nat a gododin 


Dech " Uefdir aryf gardith tith ragon ^^ 
Tec ware rac gododin ^* ystre anhon 
By due diwyll o win bebyll ar lies tymyr " 
I'ymor tyniestyl tra merin Uestyr 896 


Tra merin Uu Uu meithlyon 


O dindywyt' en dyuuwyt* yn dyvuu* 

Ysgwyt* rugyn rao doleu trin tal vriw* vu 


Dihenyd y ^ bop.^ Uaur llanwet ^ 900 

Y haoal^® amhaP^ afneuet 
TwU tal y" rodauc . 
Gas o hir ^ gwychauc 
Bywynyauo diffret 

Eil with ^^ gwelydeint amallet ^ 905 

Y ^^ gat veirch*' ae seirch" greulet 
Bit en anysgoget bit get 

Uoron *• gwychyrolyon pan ry ^ godet ** 

Trwm" en trin a Uain yt ladei** 

Gwaro ** rybud o gat dydygei * 910 

^ Rhwyd, 4. ' Dioguyt, 1; drinuyt, 2; dringwyd, 8; dinguyt 

& ddingwyd, 5. * Duynwyt, 1, 2, 5; dwynwyd dyvnuyt, 8, 6. 

* Dyonn, 1, 2, 6; duou, 3; ddyoun, 4. • Ys gwyt, 1. « TaU 
orin, 1, 2, 8, 5; talvriw, 6. ' I, 8. *^ Bawb, 4. ^ Llanet, 

1, 2, 8, 5. i<> Haval, 2, 8. ^^ Ami, 8; amhaval, 5. ^ I, 8. 
w Obir, 4. " Nith, 1, 2, 8, 6. "A malet, 1, 2, 3, 6. >« I, 
8« ^ Oatveirch, 1, 2, 8, 4; gatseiroh, 6. ^ £irch, 1, 2, 8; 

seroh, 6. " Woron, 8; voron, 5. " ^id vw y gair htm yn 

1,2,8. »Goddet, 1, 8. «Trum,l, 2. « Ylladdei, 1,2,8, 6. 
» Owaew, 1, 2, 8, 5. 


Gant can^ jg calan darmerthei' 

Ef gwenit' a dan* vab uruei* 

Ef gwenit ^ a dan ^ dwrch trahanc 

Un riein^ a morwyn a menauo 

A chan oed mab brenhin teithiang 915 

Ud * gwyndyt gwaet kiljrd gwaredawc *® 

Kyn golo gweryt ar grud** hael etvynt" 

Doeth dygyrchet y " get" ae glot ae echiauc^* 

Uot*^ bed gorthyn hir o*'^ orthir rywynauc*' 


Am drynnv*' drylav** drylen 920 

Am Iwys am diffwys dywarchen 
Trihuc^^ baruaut*' dreis dili pleo hen*' 
Atguuc** emorem** ae** guiau*^ hera*^ 

^ Nid yw y gair hwn yn 5, ' Darmerthi, 2, 8, 5. ' Qweint, 
1,8; gimeint, 2. * Dau, 1, 2, 3, 4. " Urvei, 1, 2; wrfei, 8; 
wrfai et nrvei, 5. * Gweint, 1, 2, 8, 5. 'A dau, 1, 2, 8, 4. 
8 Urion, 1, 2, 5. • Yd, 2; udd, 1, 8, 5. " Gwareawo, 6. 

" Rudd, 8; gnid & rudd, 5. ^ Etnynt, 1,2; edwynt, 3; et- 

wynt, 5. " I, 8. " Gat, 1. " Eichiawc, 1, 2, 8, 5. »• Not, 
1, 2, 8, 6. *^ Nid yw y gatr hwn yn 3. ^ Rhyvyniawc, 1, 2, 
8, 6. " Amdrynnl, 1. » Drilau, 1. «* Tri chue, 1, 2 ; 

tri chwe, 8; tri hwe, 4; tri hne, tri ohwe, 5. " Barnnant, 1, 2; 
barnwawd, 8; barraut & barrawd, 5; barent, 8. " Plynin, l, 2, 
8, 5; plycein, 6. ** Atguue, 1,2; atgwne, 8; atgnne, 4 ; atgure, 5. 
« Ymorien, 1, 2, 6; i moricn, 3. " A, 8. '^ Gwian, 1, 8, 6; 
guian, 2. " Hen, 1, 2, 8, 5. 

76 Y aODODIN. 

Hanoai ^ oreaer uragdenn ' 

At ' gwyr a gwydyl a phrydein m 


Deheueo gwenaawy'^ mab gwen 


Am® giniay drylav^ drylen 
Trym8 dwys tra diffwys dywarchen 
Kemp e ^ lumen arwr ^^ baruawt ^^ asgell ^^ 930 
Vreith *' edrych ** eidyn a breithell 
Goruchy d ^* y *• lav loften " 
Ar gynt a gwydyl a phryden 
• A chynhyo ** mwng bleid heb pren ^* 
Eny law gnavt gwychlaut ene lenn dd5 

Prytwyf ny bei marw morem ^ 
Deheueo gwenabwy mab gwen 

^ E anceu, 2 ; E* angeu, 8 ; E anceu, angeu, 5. - Yreuei 

vracden, 1, 2, 8, 5. * A, 8. * Yeinrudd, 1, 2, 8; vein rud, 5. 
' Guenau nng, 1,2; gwenabwy, 8. '^ Ar, 1 , 2, 8. ' Drylawt, 2, 5. 
» Tnim, 2; trwm, 8. » Y, 1, 2, 8 ; o, 8. ^ Ap wr, 1, 2, 8, 6. 
" Carwawt, 1, 2, 8, 6. " Aaget, 1, 2, 8, 5. " Arreith, 1, 2, 
8, 5. " Edryth, 4 " Gorchudd, 3, 6. " Ei, 8. " Lof- 
len, 1, 2, 8, 4. " Cbyngo, I, 2, 8, 5. ^ Ben, 5. » Mor- 
yen, 1^ 2, 8| 5. 

tfrttiiHlafa anh M^its, 



Hb was a man in mind, in years a yonth,^ 

And gallant in the din of war ; 

Fleet, thick-maned chargers' 

Were ridden ' by the illustrious hero ; 

^ Or, '* The yonth was endowed with a manly diBpoaition/* the 
word oed being taken as a verb (oedd) rather than as a substantive; 
though it ought to be remarked, as indicative of the sense in which it 
was regarded by the copyist, that MS. No. 8, which has generally 
supplied the dd where it was considered necessary, has it not in the 
present instance. 

* Al. charger, in the singular number. The favourite steed of our 
hero, supposing him to bo the son of Urien Rheged, is, in the Triads, 
call^ "Carnavlawg** (cloven-hoofed,) and is said to have been 
" one of the three horses of depredation of the Isle of Britain,^* (^y^* 
Arch. vol. ii. page 20.) Taliesin in his Elegy on Owain son of Urien, 
describes him as 

" OwT ^w ttch ci amiiw leirch 
A rodfici fcirch 
I eirchiaid." 

A worthy hero seated on variegated trapplnn. 

Who would give tteeda to thoie that aaked him.— Myv. Arch. vol. i. p. 19* 

Thick mant was regarded as one of the good points of a horse; thus 

" Atuyn march myngvras mangre." 

Beautiful in a tangle is a thick-maned horse. — lb. p. 98. 

* Lit. " Were under the thigh of;" an expression frequently em- 
ployed by the early bards to denote the act of riding. See *' Elegy 
upon Geraint ab Erbin,** by Llywarch Hen. 

80 '■'HE QODODIN. 

A shield, light and broad, 6 

Hung on the flank of his swift and slender steed; 

His sword was blue and gleaming, 

His spurs were of gold,^ his raiment was woollen.' 

It will not be my part 

To speak of thee reproachfully, lo 

A more choice act of mine will be 

To celebrate thy praise in song ; 

Thou hast gone to a bloody bier, 

Sooner than to a nuptial feast ; ' 

Thou hast become a meal for ravens, 15 

Ere thou didst reach the front of conflict. ^ 

^ One of the sons of Lly waroh Hen is similarly represented aa a 
youth, — 

"That wore the golden ipun.** — Owen*t li. Hen, p. 181. 

In the days of chivalryi of which the era of the Qododin may fairly 
be considered as the commencement, the privilege of decorating 
arms, and the accoutrements of horses with gold, was exclusively 
confined to knights, and their families; squires being only permitted 
the use of silver for the purpose. (St Palaye, 1. 247, 284.) 

' '' Pan,** pannus — down, fur, ermine, or itiUed cloth. 

' This is not literally true of Owain ab Urien, for he was married 
to a daughter of Culvynawyd Prydain. 

* " Argyvrein,** might perhaps come from argyvrau, parapher- 
nalia ; a portion or dowry. 

" Ymogel ddwyn gwraig atat yn enw ei hargyvrau," 

Beware of taking to thyself a wife for the take of her portion. (Cato Gymraq;. ) 

In that case, the passage should be rendered, — 

Ere thou didst obtain thy nuptial dowry; 


Alas, Owain ! my beloved friend ; 
It is not meet that he should be devoured by 
ravens ! * 

which reading would be supported by the allusion to the nuptial 
feast in the preceding passage. Nevertheless the term "argyn- 
rein," occuring in three other copies, would certainly point to the 
signification given in the text ; "argyrrein" being capable of the same 
meaning, whilst ** argynrein** has no reference whatever to the nup- 
tial dowry. 

^ Tho manner in which the person hero commemorated is associ- 
ated with the ravens, leads us to suspect that he was none other 
than Owain ab Urien, who is traditionally reported to have had an 
army of ravens in his service, by which, however, we are probably to 
understand an army of men with those birds emblasoned on their 
standard, even as his descendants still bear them in their coats of 
amis. Not only do tho Welsh Romances and Bards of the mid- 
dle Ages allude to these ravens, but even Taliesin and Llywarch 
Hen, seem pointedly to connect them with Urien or his son. Thus 
the former in an Ode on tho battle of Argoed Llwyvaen, (My v. Arch, 
vol. i. p. 53.) in which Owain commanded the Cumbrian forces, un- 
der his father against Ida, says, — 

"A rhag gwnith Argoed Llwyfain 

Bii Ilawer celain 

Rhuddd frain rlmg rhyfcl gwyr." 

Because of the battle of Argoed Llwy viun, 

There happened many a dead carcase, 

And the ravens were coloured with the war of men. 

And Llywarch Hen in his '* Elegy on Urien Rheged " has the fol- 
lowing expressions; — 

" Pen a borthav ar vy nhu ; Pen Urien, 

Llary, Uyw ei lu; 

Ac ar ei vron wen vran ddu. 

Pen a borthav mywn vy nghrys; pen Urien, 

Llary llywiailyst 

Ac ar ei vron wen vran ai hya.** 

I bear by my side a head ; the head of Urien, 
' The mild leader of his army ; 
And on his white bosom the sable raven is perched. 

I bear in my shirt a head { the head of Urien, 

That governed a court with mildness ; 

And on his white bosom the sable raven doth glut. 

(Owen's U. Hen. p. 84.) 

This supposition would considerably enhance the point and beauty 



There is swelling sorrow^ in the plain, 

Where fell in death the only son of Marro. 20 


Adorned with his wreath, leader of rustic warriors,' 
whenever he came 

of the passage in the text ; for a sad or unbeeoming thing, indeed, 
{*' cwl/* a /auUf) would it bethat one who fought by the aid of ravena 
sliould himself be eventually devoured hy them. 

Moreover, a tradition prevails, that Owaiii the son of Urion was ac- 
tually engaged in the buttle of Cattraeth. Thus Lewis Ulyn Cothi, a 
poet of the fifteenth century, observes; — 

** Bwriodd Owain sb Urien 

Y tri thwr yn Ngbattmeth hen. 

Ovnodd Arthur val goddaith 

Owain, ei vraia a*i fon vialth.*' (1. 14«.) 

Owain ton of Urien overthrew 

The three tower* of Cattraeth of old ; 

Arthur dreaded, tm the flames, 

Owain, hU ravens, and bis purti-cdoured staff. 

But to the view which would identify our hero with the son of Urien 
there is this objection, tliat the poem describes the former as the son 
of Marro or Marco ; nor can the difiiculty be got over, without sup- 
posing that this was another name of Urien. Or if tliat be inadmis- 
sible, the line, in which Owain^s name occurs, may be tranalated, — 

Alas, the beloved firiend of Owahi} 

an alteration, which will do no great violence to the allusion about 
the ravens. 

' Al. ** March,'* as if addressing the horse of the slain; — 

O steed, in what spot 
M'as slaughtered, &c. 

^ ** Cynhaiawc,** (c^n-taiawg.) Adopting this version for the sake 
of variety, and under the impression that all the different readings 
of this poem are not the mere result of orthographical accident, but 
that the forms of olscure or illegible words were sometimes deter- 
mined by tradition, we must believe that the taiogion, who com* 
pcsed the army of Madog, were simply his own tenants or depen* 


By his troop unattended/ before maidens would he 

serve the mead ; 
But the front of his shield would be pierced,' if ever 

he heard 
The shout of war; no quarter would he give to 

those whom he pursued ; 
Nor would he retreat from the combat until blood 

flowed ; 25 

And he cut down like rushes^ the men who would 

not yield. 

^ " Diifun/^ (di-ffan.) Ffun is any thing united together, and is 
used at line 803 for a band of men. Some read ''diffyn/* (protection 
or defence,) and in that case the sense of the passage would seem 
to be, 

He brought proteetion to women, and mead he diitributed. 

The former reading is preferred, inasmuch as it exhibits in a more 
natural and consistent manner the twofold character of Madog, as a 
soldier and a courtier, which appears to be the object of the Bard to 
delineate. Our inference on this point is. moreover supported by 
more obvious passages of that description, which occur again in the 
Poem, such as, — 

" Ragorei vcirch racvuftii 

En tnn Uetvegin gwin o bann.'* 

He surpassed the fleetest steeds 
In war, but was a tame animal when he poured the wine from the goblet. 

The epithet *' cynhaiawc,'* assuming it to be the proper term, would 
also, by reason of its contrasting effect, considerably enhance the 
value of our heroes domestic and social courtesy. 

* «* Twll tal y rodawr." Dr. Owen Pughe translates this "the front 
opening of his chariot;" *'twll ar ysgwyd,** however, in the Ixxxvii 
stanza, evidently refers to a shield, and this sense is, moreover, sup- 
ported by ** tyllant tal ysgwydawr," in Taliesin^s Ode on Gwallawg, 
as well as *'rac twll y gylchwy," used by Cynddelw. The meaning 
therefore appears to be that wherever the battle raged, there would 
the chief bo found, so boldly and directly fighting as to have the very 
boss of his shield perforated by the spears of his enemy. 

s " Brwyn." From the practice which the Webh Bards com- 


The Qododin relates, that on the coast of Mordei/ 
Before the tents of Madog, when he returned, 
But one man in a hundred with him came.' 

Adorned with his wreath, the chief of toil, his 
country^s rod^ of power, 30 

Darted like an eagle ^ to our harbours, ' when allured 

monly had of adapting their descriptive similes to the names, armo- 
rial beiiriiigs, or some other poculiuritios of their horoes, wo may 
infor that Uie chioftaiu, who is culehratod in this stanza, is none 
otlier than Madog ah Brwyn. Indeed one copy reads *' inah 
hrwyn/* the son of Brwyn, rather than mal hrwyu, as ahove. lie is 
distinguished in the Triads with Ceugant Beililog and Bhuvon, 
under the appellation of the '< three golden corpses/* because their 
weight in gold was given by their fiimilies to have their bodies deli- 
vered up by the enemy. (My v. Arch. vol. ii. p. 69.) Madog ab Brwyn 
was the grandson of Cunedda Wledig, lord of Gododin. 

^ A maritime region in the north, as we infer, not only from the 
works of Aneurin, but also from those of Taliesin and Merddin. 

* The rest having been slain, 
s a Erwyt ** (orwyd,) a pole, or a staff to mete with, and, like the 

gvnalen, an emblem of authority. *'I will — mete out the valley of 
Succoth.** (Psalm Ix. 6.) A similar expression occurs in Llywarch 
Hen's Poems with reference to Urien Rheged, viz. 

*' Oedd dedyr cywlad rhwydd." 

which W. Owen has translated, — 

*' That was the prompt defender of his neighbourhood." 

* Llywarch Hen says in like manner of his own son Qwon, — 

*' llbythr cryr yu ebyr ocddyd." 
In the assault Uke (he eagle at the fall of riven thou wert. 

The eagle was probably the armorial badge of the hero of this 

'^ AL '' y lyr/* to our shore. We have here an instance of the 
kindred signification of some of the different readings found in 
the Poem. Both words are used in juxta-position in the fSoUowing 
extracts ;— 


To the compact^ that had been formed; his ensign 

was beloved,' 
More nobly was his emblazoned resolution' per-- 

formed, for he retreated not, 
With a shrinking mind,^ before the host of Qododin. 
Manawyd,' with confidence and strength thou pres- 

sest upon the tumultuous fight, a^- 

" Owelaia ar yorwyn — 

Lliw golau tonau taenrerw gwtnjt 

Llanw ebpr ar Ujfr, lie ni mawr-dng/' (Cynddelw.) 

I beheld on a maiden 

The bright hue of the spreading ebullition of the breafiers of the waves. 

Of the flood of the effluxes of rivers, on the strand, where it tarries not long. 

•* Oedd ei var— 

Blegys twrv ebpr yn Upr llawn." (Cynddelw. } 

His rage 

Was like the tumult of the mouths of rivers with a full margin. 

" Calan hyddvrev, tymp dvdd yn edwi, 

Cynhwrv yn edyr, //yr yn llenwi.*' (LI P. Moeh.) 

The beginning of October, the period of the falling off of day, 
There is tumult in the mouths of rivers, filling up the shore. 

* ** I ammod,'* This was probably a confederation entered into by 
the different princes, for the purpose of uniting their forces against 
the common enemy; a supposition corroborated by the word '<cy- 
wlad/* just used. The poet might, however, have intended a play 
upon the word ** ammod,'* because of its great resemblance in sound 
to "amrawyd," a bait, to which the eagle was allured, "llithywyt '' 
(Ilithiwyd,) a strictly sporting term. 

* " A garwyd," al. **a gatwyt" " was preserved, or protected.'' 

' The connection between '* arvaeth,^* and the bannerial device 19 
very obvious at lines 110, 111. 

" Mor ehelaeth 

E aruaeth uch arwyt.*' 

With such a magnificent 

Design of enterprise blazoned on his standard. 

* " O dechwyt,'' i. e. tech wyd, 

^ We have adopted " Manawyd** as a proper name, under the im- 
pression that the different stanzas of the Gododin, albeit regular 
links of the same general subject, are nevertheless in a manner each 



Nor dost thou regard ^ either spear or shield ; 
No habitation rich in dainties can be found, 
That has been kept out of the reach of thy war- 
riors' charge.* 

complete io itself, and therefore that it would be more natural, where 
the drift of tlie paragraph allowed, or seemed to have that tendency, 
to look out for the names of the chiofii, who may be thus distinctly 
introduced ; according to the tenor of the following declaration which 
is appended to " Qorchan Cynvelyn.*^ (MyT. Arch. vol. i. page 61.) 

** Canu un Canuaue a dal pob Awdyl o'r Oododia hemyd breint yngcerd 
amrjrMon. Tri chanu a thriugdnt a thijchant a dal pob un or Gorcbaneu. . 
A chaws jru am Koffau yn y Gorcbaneu rivedi Guyr a aefchant y Oatraeth nog y 
dyle Rur vyned 1 ymlad neb ar?eu; Ny dylo Bard myncd i amryuon hcb y 
gerd nonno " 

Every Ode of the Oododin is equivalent to a single song, according to the 
privilege of poetical competition. Each of the incantations is equal to three 
nundred and sixty-three songs, because the number of the men who went to 
Cattraeth is commemorated in the Incuntations, and aa no man should go to 
battle mthoutarms, so no Bard ought to contend without that Poem. 

It is true that in the Vellum MS. as transcribed by Davies, this 
does not form a distinct stanza, but is a continuation of the preced- 
ing one. Nevertheless in other copies a detached position is given 
to it, which seems required also by the opening sentence, and parti- 
cularly by the rhyme. 

We find, moreover, that Manawyd was anciently used as a proper 
name, for not to mention Manawyduu and Gulvynawyd, wu have 
Manawyd in one of Taliosiu^s Pucms as undoubtedly the name of a 

" Ys gwyr Manawyd a Pbryderi." (Myv. Arch. vol. i. p. 67.) 

The name of Pryderi occurs further on in our Poem. 
Manawyd is mentioned likewise in the Dialogue between Arthur, 
Cai, and Glewlwyd, — 

'* Neus due Manavid eb tull oTrywrid ** (Myv. Arch. vol. i. p. I67.) 

Dr. O. Pughe translates the line in the Gododin thus, — 

" There was a confident impelling forward of the shaft of the variegated 

^ " Ny nodi,** (ni nodi,) tkou doH not mark, thou art blind to the 
arms of the enemy both defensive and offensive. " Nodi,** may also 
have reference to '* nod ** in the third line of the stanza. 

' Al. ''Protected against the assault of the battle of Manau ;** i.e. 



Adorned with a wreath was the leader/ the wolf ■ 

of the holme, . 
Amber beads ' iu ringlets encircled his temples ; ^ 
Precious was the amber, worth a banquet of wine.^ 
He repelled the violence of men, as they glided 

along ; 
For Venedotia and the North would have come 

to his share. 

MAnimu Qododin, or aooor<1ing to others, Mannau in which A.D. 
582 Aidan mao Gavnin wai victorious. (See Uitson^ii Annals of 
Caledonia, Vol. ii. p. 35.) 

^ One reason for not regarding ** Caeawo*' as a proper name, may 
be discovered in the manner in which the expression " cawawc cyn- 
horawc*^ is used in an anonymous poem of an early date, apud 
Myv. Arch. vol. i. page 180. The author, tliough he evidently bor- 
rowed it from tho Gododin, as indeed his allusion to Cattraeth a few 
lines before would likewise imply, employs it merely as an epithet 

' An allusion probably to his armorial bearings. Another reading 
gives " bled c mnran,^* on the open strand. 

' " This singular fact of the ancient Britons wearing amber beads, 
is confirmed by manv beads of amber having been found in the bar- 
rows on Salisbury plain, which have been recently dug. I under- 
stand that in several of these graves, pieces of amber like beads have 
been met with ; and in one as many beads were found as would 
have made a wreath." (S. Turner's Vind. 208, 209.) 

* " Am ran." " Tri argau gwaed: gwaed hyd ran, a gwaed hyd 
gwU, a gwaed hyd lawr ; sev y w hynny, gwaed hyd teymb, gwaed 
hyd ddillad, a gwaed a reto hyd lawr." (Law Triads, Myv. Arch, 
vol. iii. p. 342.) Hence " amrant,* the eyelid. 

• Lit. " the place of wine," otherwise " a horn of wino," 

" Ef a'm rhoddea medd a gwin o wydrin ban. 
He gave me mead mnd wine from the (rmntparent horn. (Tidieaio.^ 

Al. '* gwmvann," the plaoo of tho urn. In that oaso tlio line might 
bo thus translated, — 

Preciotti wu the amber, but its price wu the grave. 


By the advice of the son of Ysgyran/ 

The hero of the broken shield.' 45 


Adorned with his wreath was the leader, and arm- 
ed in the noisy conflict ; 

Ohief object of observation ^ was the hero, and pow- 
erful in the gory field, 

Ohief fighter ^ in the advanced division, in front of 
the hosts ; 

^ The hero of this stanza we take to be the " son of Ysgyran" him- 
sell He disdained the eager advance of the enemy ; for such was 
his will, that he had only to declare it, to make Venedotia and the 
North acknowledge his power, and submit to his jurisdiction ; or, it 
may be, to march unanimously to his side. Supposing " gwyar,** 
however, to be the correct reading, we might render the line thus, — 

He repelled violence, and gore trickled to the ground. 

Perhaps the identity of the person commemorated with the son of 
Ysgyran would become more evident by tUo addition of a comma 
after **gydsul,** thus, — 

" Ket dvffei wjmed a gogled e rann 
O guuyi, — mah Ysgyrntn." 

Who Ysgyran, or Cyran (tlio y» being a mere prefix) was, we have 
no means of knowing, as the name does not occur any where in 

' Al. " The maimed shield-bearer," (ysgwydwr.) 

* ** Cyn«nod," the principal mark or butt ; the most conspicuous, 
owing to his being in advance of his men, and perhaps on account 
of his stature also, if *' eg gawr,'* or " yggawr ** mean giantlike, 

^ " Cyn-ran ;'* the foremost share, or participation of an action. 


Five battalions^ fell before his blades ; 
Even of the men of Deivyr and Bryneich," utter- 
ing groans, 60 

* " Pymwnt/* (I. e. pum mwnt ; " dog myrdd yn y mwnt.") f.'H / 
hundred tkotuandf which, multiplied by five, would give us 2,500,000 . 
as the number of men who composed the above battalions. 

' Deivyr and Bryneich, (Deira and Bemieia) are situated on the 
eastern coast of the island, the river Humber, as we learn from 
the Triads, (Myv. Arch. vol. ii. p. 68.) flowing through a portion 
thereof. In a document which has been published in the lolo MSS. 
Argood Derwennydd, (Derwent wood probably,) and the river Trenn 
or Trent, are mentioned as the extreme boundaries of the region. 
The triads moreover speak of the throe sons of Dysgyvedawg, (or 
Dysgyvyndawd,) viz. Gall, Difedel, and Ysgavnell, under the apell- 
ation of the "three monarchs of Deivyr and Bryneich,^* (Ibid. p. 64.) 
about the period, as it would appear, of our Poem. 

It is clear from the above passage in the Gh>dodin, as well as from 
those lines, (78, 79.) 

" Ar deulu brenncyeh beych barnasswn 
Diljrw dyn en vyw nys adawsswn.*' 

If I had judged you to bo of the tribe of Brynoicli, 
Not the phantom of a man would I have left alive ; 

that the people of those countries wore not at the time in question 
on friendly terms with the neighbouring Ikitons; which circum- 
stance is further apparent from the contemporary testimony of Lly- 
warcli lien, who speaks of Urien as having conquered the land of 
Bryneich ; 

" Neus gorag o dir Brynaich.** 

This, it is true, might have a reference to the Saxon tribes, who had 
succeeded at an early period, in establishing themselves along the 
coast in that part of the island, yet the disparaging manner in which 
the grave of Disgyrnin Disgyfedawt, evidently the father of the 
'* three monarchs,^* is spoken of in the Englynion y Beddau, inclines 
us strongly to the belief that it was the Aborigines themselves who 
were thus guilty of treason to the common weal. 

" Cigleu don drom dra thywawd, 
Am vedd Dysgyrnyn Dysgyveddawd, 
Achea trwm angwrea pechawd.*' 

Hear the sullen wave beyond the strand. 
Bound the grave of Dysffymyn Dysgyveddawd, 
Heavy the burning impuUe raisea by sin. 

(Myv. Arch. vol. L p. 78.) 


Twenty hundred perished in one short hour; 

Sooner did he feed the wolf ^ with his carcase, than 
go to the nuptial feast;^ 

He sooner became the raven's prey, than approached 
the altar;' 

He had not raised the spear ere his blood streamed 
to the ground ;^ 

This was the price of mead in the hall, amidst the 
throng; 56 

Hyveidd Hir ^ shall be celebrated whilst there re- 
mains a minstrel. 

^ An alluBion to the name of our hero^ fitther, (Bleiddan,) and 
probably to bis own standard. 

> " Neithyawr.** Al. "than go to the altar.** 

' Al. " elawr ** a 6ter, ** than obtained a bier." He was devoured 
by the birds of prey ere he could be removed for interment. 

^ Or, '* Ere he received his nuptial dowry, his blood streamed 

* Hyveidd Hir was the son of Bleiddan Sant, of Glamorgan, (tlio 
celebrated Lupus.) According to the Triads he was one of the 
three alien kings, upon whom dominion was conferred for their 
mighty deeds, and for their praise-worthy and gracious qualities. 

" Tri eiUdeyra ynys Prydidn: Gwrgai vab Owrien yn y Gogledd, a Chada- 
vael viJi> Cynvedw yng Ngwynedd. a Hyveidd Hir vab Bleiddan Sant ym Mor- 
ganwg : aev v rhodded Teyroedd iddynt am eu campau a'u cynneddrau clod- 
vorion a rkaavorion." (Triail, 96, third leriei.) 

Taliesin, in his Ode to Urien, speaks of Hyveidd in conjunction 
with Gododin;— 

** Hyveidd a Oododin a lieu towyi." (Myv. Areh. voL L p. 67.) 

His name also occurs in another poem, by the same Bard, " to 
Gwallawg ap Lleenawg {** — 



The heroes marched to Gododin, and Gognaw 

But bitter were they in the battle, when they stood 

arranged according to their several banners ; 

Few wore the years of peace which they had en- 
The son of Botgad caused a throbbing by the energy 
of his hand; 60 

They should have gone to churches to do penance^ 
The old and the young, the bold and the mighty ;^ 
The inevitable strife of death was about to pierce 

** Haearnddur a Hjfeidd a Owallawg 
Ac Owein Mon Maelgynig ddefawd 
A wnaw peithwyr gonreiiuUawg." 

Haearnddur and Hyreidd and Owallawg, 

And Owain of Mon, of Maelgynian manner, 

Would proitrate the ravagen. (Myv. Arch. vol. 1. p. 04.) 

The epithet ** Hir/* (long or tall,) applied to Hyveidd, counten- 
ances the view of his being conspicuous on account of his size. 

1 Gognaw must have been the son of Botgad. The name, as well 
as that of the preceding hero, occurs in an Ode which Taliesin ad- 
dressed to Gwallawg ab Lleonawg. 

" Gognaw ei brawd digonea.*' 

If, however, it be not a proper name in this stanza, it may be rendered 

either <* with laughter and sprightliness,** or " they were a laughing 


■ A I. "As with blades they dealt mutual blows." 

' " A Haw," a hand ; metaphorically power, Al. " a allaw," who 

is able. 



The heroes inarched to Gododin, Gwanar^ laughed, 
As his jewelled army' went down' to the terrific 

toil. 66 

Thou slayest them with blades, when there is 

not much chattering; 
Thou, powerful supporter of the living law, pro- 

ducest the silence of death/ 

^ The same consideration ^'hich induced us to regard '* Mana- 
wyd" as a proper name in a former stanza, has caused us to leave 
** Gv(*anar " untranslated in this place. It is not improbable, how- 
ever, from the shortness of this sonnet, that the line containing the 
name of its hero may have been lost. In that case we should trans- 
late " chwerthin wanar,** " their leader laughed.** That Gwanar 
was occasionally used as a proper name by the ancient Britons, ap- 
pears firom Triad xl. (first series,) where we find one of the sons of 
LliawB ab Nwyvre so called. He flourished however before the date 
of the Gododin, and cannot on that account be identified with the 
Gwanar of the text. Taliesin uses the word in his ** Mic Dinbych/* 
apparently as a proper name; — 

" Clod wMgar a Gwanar ydd ymdduUyn.*' 

* Or ** gem of a regiment ;** his choico regimont. 

* Al. " digynny," went up. 

^ The Bard in the two last lines seems to be addressing Death, or 
Fate, which he designates as ** the strong pillar of the living law," 
or the law of nature, just as tlie Latins called it " dura neccssitos/* 
" mortis dura lex,** ** fatalis Parcarum lex,** &o. The expressions 
'* hob vawr drydur,** und *' urwur,** indicative of the virccts of death, 
are introduced by way of contrast to the noisy mirth which charac- 
terised the warriors*s march to the field of battle. '* Arwar** signi- 
fies literally a quiescent state, or state of general rest ; pacification ; 
and as sucii is a very proper term to denote the character of death. 

** O arwar daiar down i gyd dyddbrawd.** (U. P. Moeh.) 

From the silent state of earth we shall all come at the judgment day. 



The heroes marched to Oattraeth, loquacious was the 

Blue ^ mead was their liquor, and it proved their 
poison ; ' 

In marshalled array they cut through the engines 
of war ; ^ 70 

And after the joyful cry, silence^ ensued ! 

They should have gone to churches to perform pen- 

The inevitable strife of death was about to pierce 



The heroes marched to Gattraeth, filled with mead 
and drunk, 

> As tlio word " glM/Uhough primarily signifying bluet ^^ "^^ ^ 
very general Bonso, and may mean merely paU or fresh, yet as we 
find decided colours attributed to mead elsewhere in the poem, such 
as " melyn,'* (yellow,) and " gwyn" (white,) we have thought pro- 
per to retain the literal acceptation in this place, as a poetical variety, 
however inapplicable to the beverage in question it may seem. 

2 " Impia sub dulci mcllo voncna latent." 

' The name of the chieftain, who commanded this particular troop, 
is not mentioned, unless (which is not very probable) we take *' Try- 
chant** in the third line as a proper name, and translate thus, — 

" Trychant marshals his men, armed with the weapons of war." 

Or, are wo to understand by " trwy beiryant,** that he marshalled 
his men by means of some instrument or machinery ? 
^ I. e. the silence of death. 



Goiiipact and vigorous ; ^ I bIiouIcI wrong them were 
I to neglect their fame ; 75 

Around the mighty, red, and murky bUdee, 
Obstinately and fiercely the dogs of war' would 

If I had judged you to be of the tribe of Bryneich,' 
Not the phantom of a man would I have left alive.^ 
I lost a friend, myself being unhurt, 80 

A.S he openly withstood the terror of the parental 

Magnanimously did he refuse the dowry of his fa- 
ther-in-law ;* 

I " Fyryf frwythlawn,** i. e. fyro frwythlawn ;" the sense of "/ttrt» 
frwytklawn " would seem to be ** in vigorous order.** 

' The followers of the son of Cian (a little dog,) are evidently 
called '* aei^wn,** (dogs of war^) in allusion to his patronymic, as 
well as to the name of his rosidonco, *' maon gwyngwn, ** (tfie stone 
of the white dogs,) Probably also the figure of a dog was charged 
on their banner. 

s The Bemicians, as we have already noticed, were aft this time 
opposed to the British patriots. The Cymry carried a traditional 
hatred of that people with them into Wales, and applied the term 
Bryneich to such of their kindred us allied tlicmsclves to the ene- 
mies of their country, as is abundantly manifest in the works of the 
medioival Burds. — See SxEruEN^h Literature of tho Kymry, p. 265.) 

* Or, *' Like a deluge, I would nut have left a man alive.** 

'^ It is very probable that the son of Cian had married a daughter 
of one of the chie& of Bryneich, which would thus account for the 
Bard*s lurking apprehension at first, that he might be induced to 
barter his allegiance for the dowry to be expected with his wife. His 
fears however were groundless ; for such were the purity and patri- 
otism of our youthful hero, that he even refused the dowry when it 
was offered to him, and braved his futher-in-law*s anger withal. 

THE aoDODiN. 95 

Such was the son of Ciau ^ from the stone of Gwyn- 


The heroes inarched to Oattraeth with the dawn ; 
Tiieir peace was disturbed by those who feared 

them ; 85 

A hundred thousand with three hundred ' engaged 

in mutual overthrow; 

1 In Qorchan Maelderw we road of — 

"The only ton of Cian from Trabumawg.*' 

Cian was a Bard, and is mentioned as such by Nennius in the fol- 
lowing passage, — 

" Item Talhaern Talanguen in Poemate cleniit, et Nnevin et TUiessin, et 
Bluebbar, et Cian qui vocatur Gueinchguant (Cian who i» eaUed Qhjfngwnt) 
timul uno tempore In poemate Britannieo claruerunt." 

Taliesin likewise represents him in that character in a Poem en- 
titled, " Angar Cyvyndtiwd." (Myv, Arch, vol. i, p. 84.) 

*' Cian pan clitarvu 
Lliaws gy volu." 

When Clan tang the praise of many. 

The circumstance of his being thus a poet, and classed with Aneurin 
(Nuevin,) would account for the intimacy which subsisted between 
the latter and his son. 

Clan is said to have been the servant of Peris, and to them con- 
jointly is Llangian in Caernarvonsliire dedicated. Cian is comme- 
morated on the 11th of December. — See Rees^s Welsh Saints, p. 302. 

- It is probable that three hundred was the number which com- 
posed the retinue of Mynyddawg, and that a hundred thousand^ a 
large round figure, is chosen to denote the preponderance of the 
enemy *s forces that were arrayed in opposition. This view seems 
more in unison with reason, as well as with the grammatical con- 
struction of the passage, (*' emdaflawr " being a middle verb,) than 
the supposition that the " milcant a thrychanf* formed the total of 
the anny of tiie Cymryi 


Drenched in gore, they marked the fall of thelances;^ 
The post of war' was most manfully and with gal- 
lantry maintained, 
Before the retinae of Mynyddawg the Courteous.' 


The heroes marched to Oattraeth with the dawn ; 
Feelingly did their relatives ^ regret their absence; 
Mead they drank, yellow, sweet, ensnaring; 02 
That year is the point to which many ^ a minstrel 
turns; ' 

1 Or, *' They served as butts for the fiUUng lances.** 

2 " Gorsaf; " ''Qorsav anr," a magagine ^ ama, *' Br«7dr orsav- 
awl,** a pitched battle, 

3 *' Mynyddawg Mwynvawr.'* The Triads call him *' Mynyddawg 
Eiddin/^ Edin^ hence Edinhurghf which proltably corresponds with 
his original place of residence, or at any rate may be considered as 
being situate within the limits of his ancient dominions. " The re- 
tinue of Mynyddawg Eiddin at Cattraeth" is represented as one of 
"the three honourable retinues of the Isle of Britain," because the 
men who composed it had joined their chieftain^ standard of their 
own accord, and marched at tlioir own expense, claiming neither 
pay nor reward for their service, from king or country. 

** Tair goagordd addwyn Ynyi Prydain t Gosgordd Belyn vab Cynvelyn ync; 
ngfaadvel Candawa ab Bran i a goagordd Mvnyddawg Eiddin yng Ngtaat- 
traeth; a GMgordd Dry won ab Nudd Hael yn Rbodwydd Arderydd yn 
y Oogledd j sev ydd elai bawb yn y rhai hynny ar eu traul eu hunain heb area 

Eovyn, ac heb erchi na thai nag anrbeg y gan wlad na chan Deyrn ; ac achawi 
ynny au gelwid hwy y fair goagordd addwyn. " (Triad 79, third series.) 

* '* Hanyanawr,** their natural relatives ; *' hangenawr,** those 
who stood in need of them, their families and friends. The line 
may likewise be rendered,— 

" Eateemed for their age and diapoaition.*' 

^ Al. *' lUwen/* merrtf ; <* the merry minstrel.** 


Redder were their swords than their plames/ 
Their blades were white as lime,' and into four 

parts were their helmets cloven,' 95 

Even those of* the retinue of Mynyddawg the 



The heroes marched to Gattraeth with the 

day ; 
Was not the most celebrated of battles disgraced ! ® 


1 These plumes must accordingly have been themselves red. That 
military men at this period did wear feathers of particular colours 
as distinctive badges, is further evident from the testimonj^ of Lly- 
warch Hen, who describes himself as having worn " yellow plumes. 

" Gwedy meireh hywedd, a chochwedd ddillad, 

A phluawr melyn, 

Main vy nghoes, nid oes jrm dremyn I'* (Elegy on Cynddylan.^ 

After the sleek tractable ateeds, and garments of ruddy hue, 

And the waving yellow plumes. 

Slender is my leg, my piercing look is gone.'* 

In some copies we read " phurawr " (purawr,) wliat pun/i^^, 

^ Their weapons were red and wKUe from the effects of blood and 

3 Mr. Davies and Dr. Pugho seem to have preferred the expres- 
sion ** pedryolei bcnnawr," which they construed into four pointed 
kelniets : " pedryollt," split into four parts, would appear, however, to 
be much more accordant with the descriptive tenor of the passage. 

* As in the two preceding lines is contained a compliment to mili- 
tary valour, the evident drift of the poem requires that it should be 
applied to the British party ; hence " rac ^^ in this place must be un- 
derstood to mean that the toiling warriors were from or of the retinue 
of Mynyddiiwg rather than from those who confronted him. 

^ Disgraced by the blasphemous taunts and treachery of the enemy. 



They put to death^ Gelorwydd 

With blades. The gem of Baptism' was thus 
widely taunted ;— 100 

" Better that you should, ere you join your kin- 

Have a gory unction^ and death far from your 
native homes, 

At the hand of the host of Qododin, when the day 

Is not a hero's power best when tempered with dis- 
cretion ! 


The hero^ marched to Oattraeth with the day ; 106 

1 '* Ceugant yw angeu,** (adage.) The line might be rendered, — 

" Without end they multiplied the wooden biers ; " 

An expression similar to that made use of by Lly warch Hen, in re- 
ference to the battle of Llongborth : — 

" Ac elorawr mwy no maint. 

And bicn innumerable. (Elegy upon Geraint ab Erbln.) 

" Ceugant," translated toitJumt end, is properly a Druidic term, sig- 
nifying the circle of eternity. 

"Cylch y ceugant, m niegall namyn Duw cu drciglaw." 

llie circle of infinitude, none but God can pervade it. (Barddas. ) 

" Tci phren rbydd yn forest y brenbin { pren crib eglwys } a pbren peleidyr 
a elont yu rhaidy brenhin j a phren etawr,*' (Wdsb Laws.) 

'* He is described as of " Baptism ** in contradistinction to the in- 
fidel Saxons. 

' A reference to the last unction. See St Jamet, y. 14. 

^ I. e. Tudvwlch Hir, the h^ro of this particular stanza. 


Truly* he quaffed the white mead on serene nights ;' 
Miserable, though success had been predicted,' 
Proved his mission, which he undertook through 

soaring ambition ;^ 
There hastened not to Gattraeth 
A chief, with such a magnificent design of enter- 

prize 110 

Blazoned on his standard; 
Never was there such a host 
From the fort of Eiddin,* 

* " Ne.** The statement at line 138 wonid determine the affirma- 
tive character of this word. 

' " Velnoethyd/ (meinoethydd ;) not ** in the celebration of May 
Eve/* which hi Davies^ rendering, as we clearly infer from the 
conjanction of the word with '* meinddydd,** (confessedly a serene 
day,) in Kadeir Taliesin and Gwawd y Lludd Mawr. (See My v. 
Arch. T. i pp. 87, 74.) 

'"flynntcan." A I. ** gyvatran,'* fcyvadffan,) aproTorb. *< Though 
his Buc('<«s was pruvorhini/* 

4 Or, " Through ambition he was a soarer/* Tlie person here 
commemorated was of an ambitious turn of mind, and bore armorial 
ensigns of a corresponding character, which were looked upon, in a 
manner, as prophetic of his successful career as a warrior, but the 
result of this battle miserably belied such a promise. 

*' Prenial yw i bftwb ei drachwret.** 

The path of glory leads but to the grave.— {Taliesin.) 

^ Where Edinburgh now stands ; and which was probably the 
head quarters of Mynyddawg, (sec line 80 note.) In a poem printed 
in Davic8*s Mythology of the Druids, p. 574, and supposed to have 
been written by Aneurin, Tudvwich and Cyvwlch are represented as 
feasting with Mynyddawg. 

" Gan Vrnydawc 
Ru ailveiliawe 
Eu gwirodau.'* 

Dettructive were their wanMtiU with Mynyddawg. 

100 "^^^ QODODIN. 

That would scatter abroad the mounted ravagers. 
Tudvwlch Hir/ deprived of ^ his land and towns, 
Slaughtered the Saxons for seven days;' no 

His valour should have protected him in freedom ;^ 
His memory is cherished by his fair*^ associates; 
When Tudvwlch arrived, the supporter of the 

The post of the son of Kilydd ^ became a plain of 

blood. 120 

The heroes ' marched to Oattraeth with the dawn, 

1 In the Poem alluded to, Tudvwlch Hir is described as a man <if 
dignity f "breein,** and as having in conjunction with Cyvwlch made 
breaches in the bastions of forts, — 

" A oreu vwlch ar vann caerau.*' 

The Gorchan Maelderw in like manner speaks of him as,-— 

" Tudvwlch the opprcmor of war, tko destroyer uf furu." 

» " Ech," IK. 

3 Lit. " until tlie seventh day ;** — an expression intended probably 
to denote the space of a week. Tho operations of each day are vpe* 
ciiled further on in the Poem. In like manner we arc presented in 
"Qwawd Lludd y Mawr,'* (Myv. A.rch. vol. i. p. 74) with an enu- 
meration of certain martial deeds that were performed on each day 
during an entire week. 

^ Lit. " Should have made him a fk-ee man/* or '* should have 
continued him," &o. 

^ Al. ** ugain," a score. 

6 Al, the powerful supporter — *• drut nerthyd.*' 

7 Kilydd is mentioned in the Mabinogi of " Kilhwch and Olwen,** 
where he is represented as the son of Prince Kelyddon. 

8 " Gwyr j" al. the hero, " gwr. 



But none of them received protection from their 

To blood they resorted, being assembled in gleam- 
ing armour ; ^ 
In the van was, loud as thunder, the din of tar- 
The envious, the fickle, and the base, 125 

Would he tear and pierce with halberts ; 
From an elevated position ^ he slew, with a blade. 
In iron affliction,^ their steel-clad commander ; ^ 
He subdued the Mordei that owed him homage;^ 

1 Lit. " the gleamen assembled/* The 1, ^, 9, and 6, venions, 
'* oyn hynt treiawr,** might be translated " ere the retom of the eb- 
bing tide,** and the meaning of the ivhole would seem to be, that the 
men, having marched to the field of battle at dawn, experienced a 
bloody engagement before the evening; the space of time between 
tide and tide being eqnal to the length of a day. 

2 '* Like the thunder of heaven was the clashing of the shields.*' — 
(Qorch. Maol.) 

8 »« Od uch lie.*' Al. «* Od uch lied,*' above the plain. 

* Mark the antithesis "gwrllawr*' — " arbennawr," and "ceth- 
rawr** — ** llavnawr." 

s ** En gystud hoyrn ;** an allusion to the instrumoot which 
caused his death. " Ferrous somnus.** 

< It is dear from this statement that Erthai was the lawfVil lord 
of the Mordei. He had been deprived of his dominions for a time, 
probably through the usurpation of the << steel-clad commander,** 
but at length succeeded in recovering them. Who Erthai was we 
know not ; Llywarcli Hen had a son, whose name bore some resem- 
blance to tlio word: he is mentioned in the following triplet ; — 

" The belt three men in their country, 

For protecting their habitation, 

Eithyr and Brthjfr and Argad." (Elegj on Old Age.) 

X02 "^^^ GODODIN. 

Before Erthai ^ even an army groaned.' iso 


When the tale shall be told of the battle of Oat- 

The people will utter sighs ; ^ long has been their 

grief on account of the warriors^s absence ; 
There will be a dominion without a sovereign/ and 

a smoking land. 
The sons of Godebog, an upright clan, 
Bore the furrower' on a long bier. 136 

1 Al. *'Erihgi/^ which is obviously the same as *' Arthgi,** a bear' 
dog. The rhythmical run of the line seems, however, to point to the 
other as the proper word. 

2 **Erthychei ;'* there is here evidently an allusion to the name of 
the hero, (that is, supposing the name adopted in the translation to 
be the right one,) which consideration induces us to prefer it to the 
other reading, viz. " erthrychei." With the latter word, however, 
we should translate the passage as follows ; — 

" In the front Erthai would mangle an army." 

3 AL " dychurant,** vriU he affiicted, 

^ Probably Edeym may have been the hero of this stanza, and 
that a play upon the word is intended in the expression " edyrn 
diedyrn.** Edyrn the kingdom will remain, but Edyrn the king 
is gone. 

A ** Qowyssawr,** the furrower of battle : the designation of a war* 

" Wyr i Vleddyn arv leiddiad 

A oedd draw yn civgsaw cad. " (Hy wel Cllan.) 

A grandfon of Bleddyn with the weapon of slaughter, 
Was yonder furrowing the battle. 

Al. " lynwyssawr,** "the plague ;** or ''the pool maker, ** in re* 
ference to the efifusion of blood which he caused on the field of 


Miserable ^ was the fate, though just the necessity, 

Decreed for Tudvwlch and Oy vwlch the Tall ; ' 

Together they drank the bright mead by the light' 

of torches,* 

Though pleasant to the taste, it proved a lasting 



Before, above the splendid fort of Eching® he 
shewed a frowning aspect i^ 140 

As Just o1)sorvci1, this indlvidtml mny have boon fikloyrn, the son of 
Nudd ftb Deli ab llhun ab Maelgwn ab Caswallon Lawhlr ab Eini- 
awn Yrth ab Cuncdda ab Edeym ab Padarn Delsnidd by Owawl 
daughter of Cobl GoDBifoo, vrho would be removed from the field 
of battle by his own clan. 

» •' nu truan," jurt as in lino 107. 

^ Tlio names of both these persons, as we have already seen, occur 
together in a Poem attributed to Ancurin, and printed in Davies^ 
Mythology of the Druids The latter, moreover, appears in the Tale 
of " Kilhwch and Olwen,** where a daughter of his is likewise men- 
tioned by the name of Kheubryd. Cy vwlch is there stated to have 
been one of the three grandsons of Cleddy v Divwlch, the other two 
being Bwlch and Sevwich " Their three shields are three gleam- 
ing glitterers. Their three spears are three pointed piercers. Their 
three swords are tliree griding gashers, Glas, Glesig, and Clersag.** 
(page 291.) 

» " Leu," the root of ** goleu," «« lleuad,** &c. The other reading 
" liw," is equally px-oper, even as we still say " liw dydd," " liw 
nos," &c. 

* Lit. " rush-light'' 

i^ Lit. " its enmity lasted long.** The latter portion of this stansa, 
which refers to TudTwlch and Cy vwlch, seems to have been mis- 

* Qu. '* Icenorum arx ? 

' *' Ewgci," e vffei from *'gwg," a frown. Al. "negoi," he 

104 '^^^ GODODIN. 

Whilst young and forward men composed his re- 
tinue ; 
Before, on the Bludwe/ would the horn cheer his 

Making all the Mordei full of joy ; ' 
Before, his beyerage would be braggett ; 
Before, he displayed the grandeur of gold and rich 
purple ; 145 

Before, pampered steeds would bear him safe away, 
Even Gwarthley, who deserved a comely name; * 
Before, the victorious chief would turn aside the 
ebbing tide; 

shewed retittanee, from " nagi" a denial. So in " Englynion y 

" Y Beddanbir yu Ngwanu 

Ni chavas m dioes 

Pwjr vynt hwy, pwy eu negee," 

i, e. " who wiU own, or who will deny them.** 

1 Can this mean biood or hloody field t It is certain that Meigant 
(600 — 680) uses the word in that senae; — 

*' Plwde y danav hyd ymhen vy nghlim." (Myv. Arch. vol. i. p. l6<|^ 
Under me was blood to the top of my knee. 

8 <(Digalonnit,'* the other reading 'Mygollovit/* (dygoll ovid) 
would signify that the horn banished his sorrow. 

3 Al. *' Even on the foam-bordered MordeL** 

« Which ** Gwarthlev,** ( the voice of reproach,) was not. Davies 
makes " eno bryt/ into a proper name, and construes the sentence 
thus ; — 

** Whilst Qwarthlev snd Enovryd were pouring forth the liquor 



His commaDd was ever to go forward/ loth was he 
to skulk. 


And now the early leader, 150 

The sun, is about to ascend, 

Sovereign of the revolving' lights,' 

In the heaven of Britain'^s isle.* 

Direful was the flight before the shaking 

Of the shield of the pursuing victor ; * 155 

Bright « was the horn 


With pomp was he bidden ® 

1 '* Aroh/* Al. " arth en Uwrw/* " He was an impetuous bear/^ 
There may be here a faint allusion to the name OwarthJUv, nor is it 
unlikely that his ensign bore the figure of a bear. 

2 " Gwd," (gwdd) ikat turnt round, 
8 " Gyfgein," (cyvgein,) colighL 

^ A peculiarity observable in Welsh documents is, that they fre- 
quently consign general circumstances to the island of Britain in 
particular. This may be exemplified by the account which is given 
of the deluge in Triad 13. (Third Series ;) — 

"The three awful events of the Me of Britain; first, the bursting of the 
lake of waters, and the overwhelming of the face of all lands ; so that ul man. 
kind were drowned, excepting Dwyvan and Dwyvach, who escaped In a naked 
vessel, and of them the Isle of Britun was repeopled," &c. 

' Qwrveling. 
« Al. " ungentle." 
7 Vide supra, lines 89, 113. 

^ As there is nothing to rhyme with " ryodres/* probably there is a 
line left out here. 


To the feast of intoxicating mead ; 

He drank the beverage of wine, 160 

At the meeting of reapers ; ^ 

He drank transparent wine, 

With a battle-daring purpose.' 

The reapers sang of war, 

War with the shining wing ;' ]a5 

The minstrels sang of war, 

Of harnessed ^ war, 

Of winged war. 

1 It would appear from this that the feaat was given in celebra- 
tion of the time of harvest. That the Britons, like the Jews, exhi- 
bited signs of great joy at that season, may be inferred from the 
following Triads of Dy vnwal Moelmud, (My v. Arch. vol. iii. p. 283.) 

"Tair dad udcom sydd; dygynnnll gwlad gmn riaint a phenemiedloedd, 
com eifnkttuan, a chora cad a liiy vel rbag gonoea gonrlad ac ettron." 

There are three tnunuet progreauone; the anemblj of a eountiy according 
to hMuli of Cunilies ana cmefs of tribes, the horn of harvest, and the horn <» 
war and of battle against the oppression of neighbours and aliens. 

*' Tair cind addwyn y sydd ; beirdd yn darogaa heddwch, cj/rek eifnhau»»t 
a phriodas." 

There are three happy progressions ; bards announcing peace, a meeting in 
harvest time, and a nwriiage. 

"Tri com cynghludy syddj corn cjfnkauav, com dadlau, a chora goly- 

There are three horns fur mutual progression { the bora of harvest, the burn 
of contention, and the horn fur religious adoration. 

•i ti Arvel,** which is required on account of the rhyme. 
' Bright shields, which are here lilcened to wings. 

*' Y gylchwy dan y gymwy bu adenawe.*' Line 361 
His round shield was with fire winged for slaughter. 
* An allusion to the trappings of the horses. 


No shield was unexpanded ^ 

In the conflict of spears ; 170 

Of equal age they fell' 

In the struggle of battle. 

Unshaken in the tumult, 

Without dishonour' did he retaliate on the 

Buried * was whoever he willed, 175 

Ere the grave of the gigantic ^ Gwrveling 
Itself became a green sward. 


The complement • of the surrounding country ^ 
Were, three forward chiefs of the NovantsB; ' 

» " DiryV* " Rhyr ;•' that enlarges or fwells out ; " diryr," with- 
out enlargement. A descriptiTe reference to the expanding or bulg- 
ing eflfects of speari when hurled against a shield. 

2 Al. " with equal step they thickly assembled,** '* cnydyn ** firom 
enydiaWf to yield a crop. And " cynfedion ** from cyd together, and 
pedioTif feet. 

'AL *' unprofitably. " 

* " Hudid " (huddid,) covered over. 

• Query, •' vras" to rhyme with " glas" ? 

^ ** Teithi;** the character, i. e. of the military preparations. 
' " Amgant ;" al. " etmygant ;** in whioh case the passage might 
be rendered,— 

"Famona were the charaeteriatict 

Of, &c." 

^ The Novantse comprised the present districts of Galloway, Car- 
rick, Kyle, and Cunningham. 

108 '^^^ QQDODIN. 

Five battalions of five hundred men each ;^ 180 

Three levies ' of three hundred each ; 

Three hundred knights of battle^ 

From Eiddin, arrayed in golden armour; 

Three loricated hosts. 

With three kings wearing the golden torques ;^ 

Three bold knights, 186 

With three hundred of equal quality ; 

Three of the same order, mutually jealous. 

Bitterly would they chase the foe. 

Three dreadful in the toil ; 190 

They would kill a lion flat as lead.^ 

There was in the war a collection of gold.® 

^ If we have interpreted "pumcant** aright, as guying the number 
of men in each battalion, it would appear that " mwnt,** though pri- 
marily standing for ime hundred Uumsand, has also a gonoral souse. 
This Tiew of it might in like manner apply to the statement made at 
line 49. 

' '* Trychwn,** i. e. tri own (a head,) a regiment commanded by 
one head. 

3 Al. " Thrice six/* &c. Al. '< Three nouy/* &c. That as many as 
300 commanders should issue from Eiddin, can only bo explained on 
the supposition that, because of its proximity to Cattraeth, it formed 
the principal station of the allied forces. 

* Lit. "golden kings wearing chains/* The manner in which the 
greater and lesser numbers are placed in juxtaposition (lines 184*187) 
makes it very probable that the latter designate the commanders of 
the troops there mentioned. And we may well suppose that the 
statement from line 188 to line 191 is a mere continuation of the cha- 
racter of the " three bold knights.** 

^ Lead, being heavy, answers to "trwm '* in the preceding line. 

* A reference to the armour of the soldier*. 


Three sovereigns of the people 

Game from amongst the Brjthon,^ 

Oynrig and Oynon' 195 

And Oynrain ® from Aeron,* 

1 Or " who were Brjthon/* The Brython were the third " social 
tribe of the Isle of Britain,** who " came from the land of Lljdaw, 
and were descended from tho primitive tribe of the Oymry/* (Triacl 
5. third series.) Being the third principal tribe that settled in Bri- 
tain, it is probable that their original inheritance was Alban, one of 
the " three principal provinces of the Isle of Britain/* (See Triad 2.) 
which they must have occupied prior to the time of Prydain the son 
of Aedd Mawr. Dunbarton is Dun Bretton, i. e. Dinas y Brython. 

* Cynon was the son of Clydno Eiddin, and one of the three 
counsolling warriors of Arthur. 


'Tri chyngoriad varchawg Uyt Arthur; Cynon ab Clydno Eiddin, Arawn 
ab Cynvarch, a Llywareh Hen ab Elldyr Lydanwyn." (Triad 66, lint neriei.) 

He was also one of the ** three ardent lovers,** on account of his 
passion for Morvydd, daughter of Urien Rheged. 

" Tri terchawg Tnys Prydain ; Caswallawn mab Deli am Flur merch Fug- 
nach Gorr, a Thrystan mab Tallweh am Essyllt awreig March Meirchiawn ei 
ewythr, a Chynon ab Clydno Eiddun am Forwyda yercn Urien." (Tr. 63.) 

Cynon ab Clydno Eiddin was educated at the college of Llancar- 
van, and is said to have answered one of the seven questions proposed 
by Cattwg Ddoeth, the President, as follows, — 

" Pa gamp decav ar ddjm 7 
Atteb. Cyweirdeb." (Cynan ab Clydno Eiddin ai dywawd.) 

What is man'* fairest quality ? 
Answer. Sincerity. 

His grave is recorded in the Englynion y Beddan. (Myr, Arch, 
vol i. p. 79.) 

3 Wo adopt this as a proper name, becanso it makes np tho num- 
ber three. A person of that name is mentioned in the following 

stanza ; — 

" A glywaist ti ehiredl Cynrain, 
Pen cyngor Ynya Prydiun, 
Gwell ydyw cadw nag olrhain.** 

Hast thou heard the saying of Cynrain, 

The chief counsellor of the Island of Britain 7 

Better to keep than to pursue. (lolo MSS. pp. SSI, 661.) 

The word has however been construed " chief spearmen,** and *' of 
the stock of.** 

* There is a place so called in Cardiganshire. 



To greet ^ the ashen lances ' 

Of the men who dropped from Deivyr.' 

Game there from the Brython, 

A better man than Oynon, 200 

Who proved a serpent to his sullen foes ! 


I drank of the wine and the mead of the Mordei ; 
Great was the quantity of spears, 
In the assembly of the warriors ; 
He ^ was solemnising a banquet for the eagle. 205 
When CydywaP hurried forth to battle, he raised 
The shout with the green dawn, and dealt out tri- 
bulation, ^ 
And splintered shields about the ground he left, 

^ Al. '*|pogyverth,** to oppose. 

^ * ' Yn bon," from on an ash, and by metonymy, a spear. Or, as 
hon'* means what is present to the sight, we may construe the 
passage thus, — 

" To greet openly," &c. 

3<'Doivyr divorogion/^ tho droppors of Doivyr; not ''tho men 
who dropped into Deira,** as Duvius has it. Doivyr and Bryneich 
were now opposed to the British patriots. See lines 50, 78. 

^ Namely Cydywal, a chieftain of Gwynedd, now stationed in the 
region of Mordei ; considering the disaster that ensued, it appeared 
whilst he presided over the banquet in his own camp, as if he were 
merely preparing a feast for the birds of prey. 

^ His history is unknown. 

• ** Cyn y, ** i. e. eyni. 



And darts of awful tearing did he hew down ; 

In the battle, the foremost in the van he wounded. 

The son of Syvno/ the astronomer, knew, 211 

That he who sold his life, 

In the face of warning, 

With sharpened blades would slaughter. 

But would himself be slain by spears and crosses.' 

According to the compact,^ he meditated a conve- 
nient attack, 216 

And would boast ^ of a pile of carcases 

Of gallant men of toil, 

Whom in the upper part of Gwynedd^ he 

1 Nothing is known of this diTiner. 

>The *<croe8** was probably a kind of cross bow. Taliesin in 
" Owaith Gwenystrad ** sajs of the slmin warriors, — 

" Llaw ynghroes** — 

Which has been translated by Icnan Yardd, 

*' Their hands were on the erucifix [eroes.] " (M yr. Areh. vol. i. p. 63.) 

Al. " Athrwys," (ath-rhwys,) " very vigoronsly." 

' This appears to have been the compact entered into by the dif- 
ferent tribes of the Britons^ for the purpose of withstanding the 
usurpation of the common foe. See line 82. 

* " Ermygei,** which might also, and perhaps more literally, be 
rendered he paid reaped to. The other reading *< dirmygei," would 
mean he spumed, or dishonoured, 

B '< Blaen Qwynedd,*' the borders of North Wales, whither the 
Saxon encroachment had already extended. 



I drank of the wine and the mead of the Mordei, 
And because I drank, I fell by the edge of a gleam- 
ing sword/ 221 
Not without desiring a heroes prowess ; ^ 
And when all fell, thou didst also fall.' 
Thus when the issue comes, it were well not to 

have sinned. 
Present, in his thrusting course, showed a bold 
and mighty arm.^ 

^ *' Fawd ut/* i. e. fiawddyd, from flawdd, radiatioiii splendour. 
We may also render the sentence as follows, — 

" I fell by the radiant rampart, (ffln j **) 

the epithet radiant having a reference to the arms of the soldiers, 
s Or, as a moral reflection, — 

"A hero's prowess is not without ambition." 

There are various readings of the word which is here translated 
protpe**^ e. g. cobnet, colwed, eofoed, but all of them are capable of 
that construction, thus *'cobnet" comes from colnaw, to thump, 
" colwed,** from col a sting, or a prop, whilst '*eofned'* literally means 

3 In Maelderw*s stanaas thus, — 

" When all went up, thou didst go down." 

In another place, — 

" When all were extended, thou didst also tall.*' 

^ llie line in Gorohan Maelderw, Myv. Arch. vol. i. p. 62, has 
been translated by Dr. W. O. Pughe, 

" Present, ere he spoke, was carried with the arms." (Diet. Voce Bieichiawl.) 

That in the other Gorchan of Maelderw, page 85, may be rendered. 

Present narrates that he was earried with the arms. 



The heroes who inarched to Oattraeth were re- 

Wine and mead out of golden goblets was their 
• beverage, 

That year was to them one of exalted solem- 

Three hundred and sixty-three chieftains, wearing 
the golden torques ; ^ 

Of those who hurried forth after the excess of re- 
velling, 230 

But three escaped by valour from the funeral 

1 Lit " Threo heroes and three score and three hundred, wearing 
the golden torques.'* 

3 If " fToMiwd ** ever hears the meaning assigned to it hy Br. 
Tuglio, it must have derived it from the practise of fighting in the 
Joue of a camp, (which would he peculiarly gashing,) for on his own 
showing the word has no other etymon than that of " iTos,** a ditch, 
a trench. From the same root Merddin gives it the sense of burial — 

" A hy t vrnnt yth goffaaf 
Dy ffossaut trallaut tryromaf.'* (Myv. Areh. vol. L p. 140.) 

Until doom will I remember 

Thy interment, which was a most heavy affliction. 

Likewise Taliesin;— 

" Hyd ydd acth ef 

Ercwlf mur^otatiMf 

As arnut tywawd." (Myv. Arch. i. p. 00.) 

Until he. Erewlf, 

Descended into the fosse of the rampari, 

And was covered with sand. 

114 Y aODODIN. 

The two war-dogs^ of Aeron, and Oynon the daunt- 

And myself, from the spilling of blood, the reward 
of my candid song.' 

1 Their names are given in " Owarchan Cyn?elyn.** (Myv. Arch, 
vol. i. page 60. Davies'b Mytholog}', page 622.**) 

Three warriors and three score and three hundred, 

To the conflict of Cattraeth went forth i 

Of thoee who hastened from the mead of the cup-bearers, 

Three onlr returned, 

Cjrnon ana Osdreith, and Cadlew of Cadnaat, 

And i myself from the shedding of blood.— 

> The grave of Cynon is thus recorded, — 

" Bet gur gwaud urtin 

In uchel titin in isel gwelithi 

Bet Cynon mab Clytno Idin.'* 

Hie grave of a warrior of high renown 

Is in a lofty r^on— but a lowly bed; 

The grave of Cynon the son of Clydno Siddin. 

And in another stanza ; 

" Piau V bet f dann y bria 

Bet gur gwrt yng Kiuiscin 
Bet Kinon mab Clytno Idin." 

Whose is the grave beneath the hill ? 
It is the grave of a warrior vsliant in the conflict,-— 
* The grave of Cynon the son of Clydno Eiddin. 

(Myv Arch. vol. L p. 70.) 

A saying of Cadreith has been preserved in the Englynion y Cly wed. 

** A glyweisti a jtant Cadreith 

Fab Porthawr filwr areith 

Ni charDofydd diobeith." (Myv. Arch. 1. 175.) 

Hast thou heard what Cadreith sang. 

The son of Porthawr, with the warlike speech ? 

God loves not the despairer. 

' " Qwenwawd.'* It might bo translated ''flattering song/* but 
candid or sacred seems mure consonant with tlie character of a 
Durd, whose motto was " Y gwir yn erbyn y byd.** Wo may pre- 
sume that Aneuriu on this occosiou displayed his heraldic badge, 
which, according to the law of nations, would immeduitely cause a 
cessation of hostilities. 

** Tair braiat Behrdd ynys Prydahi ; Trwyddedo«aeth Ue'relont ; nas djreer 
snr noeth yn eu herbyn i a gair eu gair hwy ar bawb.'* 

The three primary privileges of the Bards of the Isle of Britahi > maintenance 



My friend in real distress, we should have been by 

none disturbed, 
Had not the white-bannered commander ^ led forth 

his army ; 236 

We should not' have been separated in the hall 

from the banquet of mead, 
Had he not laid waste our convenient groves ; ' 
He crept into the martial field, he crept into our 


wherever they go ; that no naked weapon be borne in their presenee { and their 
word be preferred to that of all others. (Initltntional Triadf. See alio Myv. 
Arch. Tol. Hi. Laws of Djnrnwal Moelmud.) 

" Sed me per hoetea M ercuriua eder 

Denso paventem lustulit acre. (Horace Carm. lib. ii. Ode 7* ) 

* " Gwyn dragon ;** probably Ilcngist* who bore, as his arms, a 

white prancing horse upon a rod field. There is here accordingly 

an allusion to the first arrival of the Saxon% which was the cause 

to the Britons of all their national calamities for many a long year 


AI. " Had it not been for the two hundred (al. ten handred) men of the 
white-bannered commander. *' 

2 Or, " we were not — until. &o. 

3 Lit " thorn bushes.** For an illustration of the advantage 
which the natives would derive from their woods and thickets in 
times of, the reader is referred to a story told of Garadoc in the 
lolo MSS. pp. 186, 697. which on account of its length wo cannot 
transfer into our pages. 

* Or more sententiously, as Davies has it, 

" Base is he in the field, who is base to his own relatives.'* 

The construction adopted in the text^ might allude to the marriage 
of Rowcna with Vortigem. 


The Gbdodin relates how that, after the fight in 
the fosse, 

When we had no dwellings/ none were more des- 
titute.' 240 


Scattered, broken, motionless is the weapon,^ 
That used to penetrate through the great horde,* 

1 ** Llwyeu,** from " Uwyr," a /rami, a platform, a lofL Or it 
may be Uwyr,** an elm tree, in reference to the devaatation of the 
groves just mentioned. The elm was very common in the island 
at the period under consideration. Taliesin celebrates a battle en- 
titled " Gwaith Aigoed Llwyrein,** which means " the battle of the 
forest of elms.** 

'* A xliag gwaith Argoed LI wy vain 

Ba Uawer celain." (Myr. Arch. vol. i. p. M.) 

Al. " When we were deprived of our sharpened weapons.** 
' Thus in Qorchan Maelderw, — 

" There trod not, in Gododin, on the rarfsce of the foase. 
When deprived of his aharpened weapon, none more deatitute." 

' One reading has " the weapon of death,** another, ** the deatli- 
formed weapon, is broken and motionless.'* 

^ If we give an affirmative moaning to the words " angkynnull 
agkymanduU agkysguget,** tlio couplet might bo thus routlorud, — 

" They aacembled in arma, and in complete array they moved along. 
And rulled through the mighty horde." 

It is observable that Camhuanawo adopted this affirmative form in a 
similar passage with which ** Qorchan Tudvwlch ** opens, thus ; 

" Arv ynghynnull, 
Yn nghymanduU, 
Twrv yn agwedd ; 

Y rhag meiwedd, 

Y rhag mawredd, 

Y rhag madiedd.** 

They assemble in arms. 
The forces are marshalled, 

Tumult approaches : 
In the van are the waiiike, 
In the van are the noble, 

In the van are the good. 


the numerous ^ horde of the Lloegrians.' 
Shields were strewn on the sea coast,' shields in 

the battle of lances ; 
Men were reduced to ashes,^ 
And women rendered widows, 246 

Before his death.'^ 
O Graid, son of Hoewgi,^ 
Witli thy spears 
Didst thou cause an effusion of blood. 

And he morevoyer tracos a similarity between this style and that of 
Tacitus, wherein the latter describes the effects of Oalgacns^ address 
upon his British followers; — 

" Jamque sgmina, et armomm fulgores, audentlstimi, ciyaiqae proeurtu, 
aimul initruebantur aciei." (See Hanea Cjrmra, p. 90.) 

* Al. " llawr," '* and prostrate the horde of the Lloegrians/* 

2 The Llocgrians were the second " social tribe** that settled in 
Britain. Their province was that of Lloegyr, by which the Welsh 
still designate England, (Triads v. ii. first series,) though there is 
reason to believe that it was originally of much smaller extent. The 
Lloegrians for the most part coalesced with the Saxons, (Triad vii. 
third series.) and grievously harassed the Cynuy in the sixth century. 

" Cynddylan, cae di y rhiw, 

Er yddaw Lloegyrwys heddtw ; 

Amgeledd am un nidgwlw I" (Llywarch Hen.) 

Cynddyinn, guard thoii tho cliflT, 

AgniiiMt any Mnogrianii that mayeoino this day | 

Concern for one inould not avail. 

3 <« Ygcynuor," i. e, " yn cynvor.*' AI. "cynnor," (h4 entranct. 
Al. "ynghynwr," in the turmoil, 

^ Tills probably refers to the enemy, who, being pagans, burnt their 
dead. The fact might have been suggested to the poet's mind, by 
tho name of his hero '* Qraid," which signifies heaU 

« Viz. that of Graid. 

< The rhyme determines this form, which occurs in 1. In Gor- 
ehan Madderw, we have, instead of Graid the son of Hoewgi, 
" Draint the son of BIciddgi.*' 




There was the hero, with both his shoulders 

covered/ 250 

By a variegated shield, and possessing the swiftness 

of a warlike steed ;^ 
There was a noise in the mount of slaughter, ' there 

was fire,' 
Impetuous were the lances, there was a sunny 

There was food for ravens, the raven there did 


1 " Orwydan,** from Gorwydd. Another way of traoBlating these 
lines would be — 

" There was the hero of the two chielded wing* , 

The one with the variegated front, the other of like quality with Prydwen; 

which was the name of Arthur*8 shield ; — 

"Tarian a gymmerai Arthur ar ci Ysgwydd, yr hon a olwld Prydwen.** 

A shield did Arthur take upon hit shoulder, which was called Prydwen. 

(Or. ah Arthur.; 
The supposition that Arthur*s shield had already acquired a notable 
renown is indirectly corroborated by an alleged contemporary poem, 
'' Proiddiau Annwn.** (My v. Arch. vol. i. p. 45.) in whicli his ship 
of the same name is dearly invested with a similarly extravagant 
diaraotcr, — 

"Tri Uoneid Prydwen ydd aetham ni ar for.*' 

'^ Al. *' in the midst of arms..** 
3 Perhaps scintillations from the clash of arms. 
* Occasioned by the brightness of the arms. Al. ** Clouded was 
the dawn, and the sun,** Al. *< there was misery.*' 
*.** Bud e vran,** an allusion to the name of Budyaai, 


And before he would let them go free, 255 

With the morning dew, like the eagle in his glad 

He scattered them on either side, and like a billow 

overwhelmed them in front. 
The Bards of the world judge those to be men of 

Whose counsels are not divulged to slaves.^ 
The spears in the hands of the warriors were 

causing devastation ; 260 

And ere was interred under' the swan-white 

One who had been energetic in his commands, 
His gore had thoroughly washed his armour :^ 
Such was Buddvan, ' the son of Bleiddvan the 


> An old Adage says, — 

*' Nm adde? dy rin i was." 
Reveal not thy secret! to a tenrant. 

> Perhaps buried on the field of battle, where the horses would 
trample on his grave ; or the expression might allade to the mode of 
his being conveyed by horses to bis last resting place. 

3 ** Eloirch,** lit. swan8,hut the expression "meirch eilweleirch,** 
(horses of the colour of swans,) in the Maelderw version, seems to 
favour the translation we have given above. 

* Or, '* the trappings** of his charger. 

^ His history is not known. 

120 '^^^ GODODIN. 


It were wrong not to record his magnificent feat ; 

He would not leave an open gap, through cowar- 
dice/ 266 

The benefit of Britain's minstrels never quitted his 

Upon the calends of January;' according to his 

His land should not be ploughed, though it might 
become wild ; 

He was a mighty dragon of indignant disposition ; 

A commander in the bloody field/ after the feast 
of wine, 271 

^ That is, he would not cowardly desert his post, and thus leave 
an opening in the rank. 

^ During the Christmas festivities, which lasted for twelve days; 

" lion ceiiiog a thwylluan 

Au deuddeng-uydd yn hoean *' — Eng^ y Miaoedd. 

On those occasions Bards and minstrels were frequent guests at the 
halls of the nobility, and their company contributed not a little to' 
the general entertainment. The air " Nos Galan," we may fairly 
presume, was a favourite at tliose festivities. 

3 The word *' arvaeth '* in this poem seems to have a reference 
throughout to <' arwydd/* or ensign. Thus we may suppose that 
Gwenabwy bore the Dragon for his arms, which device conveyed the 
idea of devastation, rather than that of cultivation. 

^ The Bard, according to his general custom, is here contrasting 
the two aspects of his heroes character, the domestic and the martial. 


Was Gwenabwy * the son of Gw6n,* in the strife of 

True it was, as the songs relate,' 
No one^s steeds ^ overtook Marchleu ; 
The lances^ hurled by the commanding earl, 275 
In his prancing career,^ strewed a thick path; 
As he had been reared for slaughter by the aid of 

my mother,' 
Furious was the stroke of his sword whilst lending 

support to others;' 

1 A person of the name of Gwenabwy is mentioned in the Hoian- 
nan of Merddin. — Mjt. Arch. ▼. i. p. 137. 

* Llywarch Hen had a son of the name of Gw6n : see his Elegy 
on Old Age, where he speaks in raptnrous terms of the youth ^i valour. 

" Pcdwar meib ar ugnink a*m bu, 
Rurdorchawg, tywyRawsr Ua ; 
Oedd Gw6n goreu o naddu,'* &c. 

Four and twenty sons I have had, 
Wearing the golden chain, leaden of armies; 
Ow^n was the best of them. 

^ ** Mai y mead y pathleu/* There seems to be a playful allusion 
in those words to mewian and cath, the mewing of a cat. 

^ " Moirch/* suggested by the name '* Marchleu.'* 

' Al. " Maenor," stones. 

8 Or " by the commander on his prancing charger." " Llemenig/^ 
might be a proper name, for we find that one of " the three free 
guests of the court of Arthur," was so called. Nevertheless, as it 
would in that character appear somewhat out of place here, we have 
chosen the etymological sense in preference. 

7 '* Vym am," i.e. vy mam, as it occurs, though with the addition 
of am vym, in 6. 

^ The Bard would hero pay an indirect compliment to his own 


122 • 'T^^ GODODIN. 

Ashen shafts were scattered from the grasp of his 
hand, ^ 279 

Above the narrow summit ' of the solemn pile,' 
The place where one caused the smoke to ascend ;^ 
He would slaughter with the blade^ whilst his arms 

were full of furze ;' 
As when a reaping comes in the interval of fine 

1 « Bedryolet** AL ** Spears of quartered aah were scattered 
from his hand.** 

3 *< Veinnyell/* AL ** veingel/* qa. narrow shelter? 
3 Mygedorth is mentioned by Lly warch Hen,— 

" Yn liongborth gwelais i vygedorth 
A gwyr vn godde ammorth 
A gorvod gwedi gorborth." 

In Liongborth I beheld a ■olemn pile, 

And men suifering privation, 

And in a itate of subjection after exceM of fruition 

It is likewise alluded to in the Triads,— 

'* Cornan, march meibion Elifer Gosgorddfawr, a ddwg amaw Gwrgi, Fere- 
dur, Dunanrd Fyr, a Cbynfelyn Drwagl, i edrych ar fygedorth Owenddolcu yn 

Coman, the hone of the aona of Elifer nrith the great retinue, carried Gwrgi, 
Feredur. Dunod Fvr, and Cynfelyn the stumbler, to see the fun^ pile of 
Gwendaolcu in Araerydd. 

** Falsely was it said by Tudlew, 

That no one's steeds would be orertaken by Marchleu ; 
As he was reared to bring support to all around. 
Powerful was the stroke of his sword upon the adversary; 
Eagerly ascended the asltcn spear from the grasp of his hand, 
From the narrow summit of the awful pile.'* Oorch. Mael. 

* " Vygu,** or "the place whore he would suffocate somo one.** 
' Or. **he would out (Ihidd, mow) with a blado arfufuhi of furxo.'* 
The fiirze was for the purpose of supplying Uie pile. 

< When the weather b unsettled in harvest time, the reapers dis- 
play greater eneivy and activity during the intervals of sunshine ; 
henoe the point oftbe simile. 


Woald Marchleu ^ make the blood to flow. 284 


Lower down' waa sent from the southern region,^ 
One whose conduct^ resembled the flowing sea; '^ 
He was full of modesty and gentleness, 
When allowed to quaff the mead: 
But along the rampart to Offer, ® even to the point 
of Madden,^ 

1 Nothing more Is known of this chieftain. 

' Or " Isaac,** as a proper name. 

' " O barth deheu.'* '* Dehea/* literally means the right, and as the 
mid-day sun is to the right of a person looking eastward, the word 
is also taken to signify the south ; hence we say " deheudir ** for 
South Wales. The '* parth dohou ** in this place must accordingly 
mean sonic dintrict south of the scene of action, such as Wales, where 
Gwyddno and his fnmily resided, would be. 

* " Dcvodcn," manners, customs. 

^ That is, the ebb and influx of the tide represented the contrary 
aspects of his character, the mild and the impetuous, which are re- 
spectively described in the succeeding lines. 

• Al. **from the point of Madden.'* 

' If we take this " dawdd ** to be the Catrail, we must look for 
Offer and Madden towards the extremity most remote from head 
quarters, i. c. the fort of Eiddin, (Edinburgh ;) and it is rather re- 
markable that, whilst the Catrail is generally supposed to terminate 
southward at the Pecl-fell, some eminent antiquaries have fixed its 
furthest point at Castle Over, where there is a British fort, and others 
have thought that they could trace it in the Maiden-way near the 
Roman wall, though it must be confessed that these supposed con- 
tinuations are by a third party regarded as Roman roads. The simi- 
larity between the words Offer and Over is very obvious. Baxter 
identifies Over with Oliclavis, which is naught else but ol y clawdd 
the extremity of the rampart. 

J 24 ^^^ GODODIN. 

Enraged, he was glutted with carnage, and scatter- 
ing, with desolation ;^ 200 

His sword resoonded on the heads of mothers ; 

He was an ardent spirit,' praise be to him, the son 
of Gwyddneu.' 

Caredig, ^ lovely is his fame ; 
He would protect and guard his ensign. 

1 AL " There was no yomig oflspring that be cut not to pieces, no 
aged man that he did not scatter abont.** 

3 " Muigrait.** The title is ascribed bj Talieain to the Dettj. 

' •'Trindawd tiagywydd 

A oren elvydd, 
A gwtdH dvydd, 
AmiaT yn gdvydd ; 
T goveaErai 
Tr Isiad beadigud 
A oieo Murgraia." 

Tht eternal Trinity 

Made the dements; 

And after the elements 

Adam wonderfully ; 

And after Adam 

Be made Eve ; 

llie blessed Israel 

The migkip Spirit made. (Gwawd Gwyr Israd.) 

3 Gwyddnen or Qwyddno Garanhir, lord of Gantrev y Gwaelod, 
A.D. 460 — 520. Three poems attributed to him are preserved iu 
the Myvyrian Archaiology. A character mentioned in the Mabi- 
nogion, goes by the name of Gwyddnen ab Llwydan. 

^ Mr. Uavies thinks that thb warrior was the son of Cunedda, 
who gave his name to. Ceredigion. As Cunedda, however, flourished 
in the early part of the fifth century, the martial age of his son Ce- 
redig would not well coincide with the date of this poem. There 
was another Caredig, who succeeded Maelgwn Gwynedd as king of 
the Britons, about A.D. 690. 


Gentle/ lowly, calm, before the day arriyed 205 

When he the pomp of war should learn ; 

When comes the appointed time of the friend of 

May he recognise his home in the heavenly region. 


Oeredig, ' amiable leader, 

^ *' Llctvegin;** lit. a domestic anivuU. We have another example 
here of the Bard> favourite practice of contrasting the different qua- 
lities of the person whom he celebrates. 

2 Or " When the appointed time of his departure is at hand/* q. 

d. ** gar cyrdd/* from '* cerdd *' a walk: The adopted reading, how- 
ever, is very strongly corroborated by passages in other poems, where 
" cyrdd ** is unmistakeably used as the plural of ** cerdd/* a tofu/f 

e. g. — 

" Cyrdd a cherddorion 
A chathleu englynion.*' 

Song! and minatrels, 
And Angel's melodies. (Talieain.) 

'* Yt ead ffyrdd, ys ear eprttd eyflef.'* 

" He it the roads of battle, he is the friend of hsrmonioos songs.** (Cynddelw.) 

** Llary rieym eedvrn yn cadw gwesti eyrfftf, 
Cerddorlon gyflociii. ' ' 

A mild prince of mighty men keeping festivals of songs. 
And equally protectmg the ndnttrels. (Llygad Gwr.) 

'* Arddelw cain ffyrdd ejfrdd ejffl^, 
Urddedig wledig wlad nef.** 

Claim the splendid paths of harmonious songs. 

Consecrated governor of the kingdom of heaven. (Bleddyn Vardd.) 

3 A favourite saying of a person of that name has been preserved 
in the following triplet; 

'* A glywaist ti chwedl Ceredig 
Brenin doeth detholcdi^? 
Pawb a'i droed ar ayrthiedig.** 

Ilast thou heard the saying of Ceredig, 

A wiM and select king? 

Everyone has his foot on the fallen. (lolo MSS pp. 359,6<U.) 

126 '^^^ GODODIN. 

A wrestler ^ in the impetuous ' fight ; aoo 

His golden shield dazzled' the field of battle, 
His lances, when darted, were shivered into splinters. 
And the stroke of his sword was fierce and pene- 
Like a hero would he maintain his post. 
Before he received the affliction of earth,^ before 
the fatal blow, 905 

He had fulfilled his duty in guarding his station. 
May he find a complete reception 
With the Trinity in perfect Unity. 


When Oaradawg' rushed into battle, 

> The other reading '* oeiniad '* would mean a minttrel, which, 
on the suppoutiou that the chieftain of the present is the same with 
that of the preceding stanza, would ftirther support the textual con- 
struction which we have given there to '* car c^d,** yis. the/riend 

3 Al. " gowan," gashing. 

* Al. ** Crwydyr," perambulated. 

« Gystudd daear/* buried; " cystudd haiam,** hilled. See line 128. 

A Caradawg Vroichvras, chief elder (pen bynaiv) of Qclliwig in 
Cornwall. (Triad Ixiv. first scries.) According to the Triads ho was 
one of the battle knights of the Isle of Britain, and in the Englyn 
attributed to Arthur he is styled *' Pillar of Cymru.** 

"Tri chadvarehawg Teym ynyi Prydaint Csradawe VreiehTrast a Llyr 
Uujddawg, a Mael m» Ifeuwaed o Arllechwedd j ac Arthur a gant iddjnt 
hynn o Eoglyn, 

SeT ynt vy nhri ehadvurchawg 

If aethir a liyr Lluyddawg, 

A cholovn Cymru Caradawg. * ' (T^iad S9.) 

Caradawg'b horse Lluagor is recorded as one of the three battle 
horses of the laUnd. (Trioedd y Meiroh, Myv. Aroh. toI. ii. p. 20.) 


It was like the tearing onset of the woodland 

boar ;* 310 

Bull of the army in the mangling fight. 
He allured the wild dogs by the action of his hand;' 
My witnesses ^ are Owain the son of Eulat, 
And Gwrien, and Gwynn, and Gwriad ;* 
But from Gattraeth, and its work of carnage/ 315 
From the hill of Hydwn, ere it was gained,^ 

1 This simile has eyidently some connection with the story told of 
Caradawg, that owing to hia well fonnded oonBdenoe in his wife^s 
virtno, ho was able to carve a certain Boards head, an adventure in 
which his compeers failed. It is remarkable also that the Boards 
head, in some form or other, appears as the armorial bearing of all 
of his name. See the ** Dream of Rhonabwy.** — Note. Al. <' red 

2 This statement may have two meanings, the one real, as indica- 
tive of did actually take place, namely, that the dogs came out 
of the neighbouring woods to feed upon the corpses which had fallen 
by the hand of Caradawg; the other allegorical, as referring to him- 
self in his character of a boar or a bull, the wild dogs being his 
enemies, who thus hunted and baited him. 

3 We mtiy infer from this admission that the Bard*s statements, 
though poetically adorned, are, as to the main facts, framed with a 
strict regard to truth. Thus no less than four vouchers for the cor- 
rectness of his description of Caradawg*s valour are presented to our 
notice by name. 

^ Gwriad was the son of Qwrien, one of the three princes of vassal 
origin, (See line 56 : notes.) Gwynn might have been either Gwyn 
Godyvron or Gwyn ab Nudd; both alluded to in the Mabinogi of 
Kilhwch and Olwen. 

B Lit. its manfjling or htwing, 

* We should have been tempted to construe the line thus, — 

" From the broken hill of encountert** 

Making " kynn cafTat " into one word '* cynghaffad,** had we not 
been precluded by the peculiar metre which version third presents 

128 '^^^ GODODIN. 

After the clear mead was put into his hand, 
He saw no more the hilP of his father. 


The warriors marched with speed, together they 

bounded onward ; 
Short lived were they, — ^they had become drunk 

over the distilled mead. 320 

The retinue of Mynyddawg, renowned' in the hour 

of need; 
Their life was the price of their banquet of mead. 

Oaradawg,^ and Madawg,^ Pyll)^ and leuan. 

throughout, and which accordingly requires ** cyn ** in this placo 
to rhyme with " fryn." — 

"Ofryn Kairad»» 
Hydwn cyn I 

Possibly ** Hydwn ^ may be identiffed with Haddinam or Uadiny' 
toun, in the province of Valentia. 

1 Al. " vron/* the presence. Caradawg*8 father was Llyr Merini, a 
prince of Cornwall. 

' Ai. ** eurawo,** covered with gold. 

3 Caradawg Vreichvras, just mentioned. 

A These two were doubtless sons of Llywarch HSn, mentioned to- 
gether in the following stanza; — 

** Na Phyll, na Madawg, ni byddynt hiroedlawg, 

Or ddevawd y gelwynt % 

* Rbodilyn I' — ^* na roddyn I*— cyngrair byth nis erchynt !" 

Nor Pyll, nor Madawg, would be long lived. 
If according to custom there was a calling— 
" Surrender I" " Tbey would not aurrender I" quarters they ever scorned. 

(Elegy on Old Age, &c.) 


Gwgawn,* and Gwiawn,* Gwynn ' and Oynvan, 
Peredur ' with steel arms, Gwawrddur,* and Aedd* 
an ;* 326 

1 Two persons named Qwgan and Gwion occur together in a Triad, 
as baring been sentinels in the battle of Bangor, A.D. 603. As that 
event, however, happened subsequently to the battle of Oattraeth, 
whore the heroes of the stanza wore killed, the parties could not be 
the same. There was another Gwgawn, designated Llawgadam, 
who is ranked with Gwmerth and Eidiol in a Triad of the three 
strong men of Uritain. 

"Tri fryrddion ynyi Prydain : Gwmerth Ergydlym, a ladd«a yr arth mwyav 
ac a welwyd erioed a taeth wellten { a Ow^wn Uawgadarn, a dreigUa maen 
maenarch o*r glynn i benn y mynydd, ac nid oedd Hat na thrugain ych ai tyn- 
nai; ae Eidiol Oadarn, a laddea o*r Saeson vm mrad CaeraaUawg chwechant 
a thrigain a chogail gerdin o fachlud haul hya yn nhywyU." (Triad Iz. third 

Favourite expressions of both Gwgan andGwiawn are recorded in 
Chwedlau'r Doethion. (lolo MSS. pp. 251, 651.) 

" A glywidat ti ehwedl Gwgan, 
Gweai dianc o'r ffwdan ? 
Addaw ma%rr a riioddfechan.'* 

Hast thou heard the saying of Gwgan, 
After escaping from the turmoil T 
Great promise and a small gift. 

" A gly waist tl ehwedl Gwiawn, 
Dremynwr, golwg uniawn 7 
Duw cadam a fam pob iawn.*' 

Hast thou heard the saying of Gwiawn. 

The observer of accurate sight? 

The mighty God will determine ftvery right. 

^ Soo proccoiling stanza. Gwion and Gwyn are mentioned to- 
gether as the sons of Cyndrwyn by Llywarch HSn. See his Elegy 
on Cynddylan. 

' The son of Evrog, and one of the knights of the court of Arthur, 
who found the Greal. — 

"Tri marchawg llys Arthur a gawsant y Greal. Galath vab Llawnselot Ay 
lAk. a Pheredur mab Evrawc larll, a Rort mab brenin Bort. Y ddau gyntaV 
oeddynt wery o gorph, a*r trydydd ocdd ddiweir am na wnaeth pechawd enawd. 
ol ond unwatth a hynnf drwy brovcdigaeth yn yr amser yr ennlllawdd er * * 
o verch Brangor jrr hon a vu ymerodres yn Constinobl, or honn y doeth y gen- 
hedlaeth vtvyav o*r byd, ac o genhedlaeth Joseph o Arimathea y hanoeudyn 
ell tri, ac o Im Davyda hrophwyd mal y tystiolaetha Ystoria y Gre«l."— (Triad 
1x1. first series.) 

< This name occurs in the Talc of Twrch Trwyth, p.age 259. 
> Probably Aeddon the son of Ervei : see line 845. 


130 i"^^^ QODODIN. 

A defence were they in the tumulty though with 

shattered shields ;^ 
When they were slain, they also slaughtered ; 
Not one to his native home returned. 


The heroes marched with speed, together were thoy 

That year over mead, and mighty was their design; 

How sad to mention them,' how doleful their com- 
memoration ! ' 331 

Poison is the home to which they have returned, 
they are not as sons by mothers nursed ;^ 

How long our vexation, how long our regret, 

For the brave warriors, whose native place was the 
feast of wine!^ 

^ Or affirmatively, ** a Bhield in the battle." 

* Or ** how sad their award.*' 

^ " How grievous is the longing for them.'* 

^ This lino is full of pootioal beauty, and forcibly exhibits how tho 
baneful effects of tho banquet, or the engagement to which it was the 
prelude, prevented the return of the warriors home, which their 
friends so ardently desired. 

This figure is similar to that in the fourth line of the stanza. 


Qwlyget^ of Qododin, having partaken of the 
speech inspiring 335 

banquet of Mynyddawg, performed illustriouFt 

And paid a price ^ for the purchase of the battle of 


The heroes went to Oattraeth in marshalled array, 

and with shout of war,^ 
With powerful steeds,* and dark brown harness, 

and with shields, 
With uplifted ^ javelins, and piercing lances, 340 
With glittering mail, and with swords. 
Ho excelled, and penetrated through the host. 
Five battalions fell before his blade; 

1 His name ocotin again in the poem. The *<honi of Owlgawd 
Gododin*' is mentioned in the Tale of ''Kilhwch and Olwen,** p. 288. 

2 Or in reference to the banquet itself, — ** notable were its effects, 
and it was the price which bought the battle of Cattraeth,** i. e. 
bought, or brought about its disastrous consequences. 

3 That is, contributed his life towards a victory. 

^ Or gianUiike; a reference to his stature, implied in the title *'Hir/* 
(tall) which was attached to his name. See stanza V. note. 
" Lit. " With the strength of steeds." 
^ ** Ar gychwyn," poised, ready to fly. 


Bhuvawn Hir, ^ — he gave gold ' to the altar, 
And gifts and precious stones ' to the minstrel. 345 

No Iiall^ was ever made so eminently perfect, 

^ Rhttvawn u celebrated in a Triad as one of the three blessed 
kings of tlie Isle of Britain. 

" Tri gwyndejrn ynys Prrdain } Rhan sb If adffwn, Ow»iu ab Urien, a BhU- 
awn Berr ab Dewrath Wledig." (Triad xxt. tmrd aeriet.) 

In another Triad he is recorded as one of the three imperious ones 
of the island. 


' Tri trabawc ynjn Prydein } Gwibei drahawe a Sawyl ben ucbel a Ruuawn 
Pcuyr drahawe. ' ' fFriad xxziy. aecond aeries. ) 

Other vendons, howoTer, of the same Triad, gire Rhun mab Einiawn 
in the room of Rhuvawn Pebyr. 

He is also styled one of the three golden corpsesof the Isle of Britain, 
because, when he was slain, his body was redeemed for its weight in 

" Tri eurgelcin ynys Prjdain ; Madawc mab Brwyn; Ceugant Beilliawc ; a 
Rbuawn Bevr, ab Gwyddnaw Garanhir j aev yu gelwid felly achawa rhoddl 
eu pwys ya aur am danynt o ddwylaw au lladdes.*' {'Vr. Izxvii. third aeries.) 

liis grave is alluded to by Hywel the son of Owaiu Gwynedd, 
about A.D. 1160, in these lines ; — 

" Tonn wean orewyn a orwlyeh bet 

Gwytua ruuawn bebyr ben teymet." (Ifyr. Areh v. i. p. 877.^ 

The white wave, mantled with foam, bedewa the grave, 
The reating place of Rhuvawn Pebyr, ehief of kinga. 

3 There may be some slight allusion here to the circumstance 
mentioned in the last Triad. 

^Coelvain; the stones of omen, an honorary reward. In this 
stanza Rhuvawn is celebrated as pious, valiant, and hospitable. 

* The hall (neuadd) might have been the camp itself, or it might 
have been the generaPs tent, answering to the Roman pnetorium. 
Along the extent of tlie Catrail there are several forts of the British 
people, which were built either on the contiguous hills, or on the 
neighbouring heights. A field in the neighbourhood of Dolgclloy, 
which exhibits clear vestiges of an ancient enoampmenti goes by tlie 
name of ** Neuadd Ooch,** 

" Neuadd pob diddos." 

E rery ahelter is a hall. (Adage. } 


So great, bo magnificent for the slaughter; ^ 

Morien' procured' and spread the fire, 

And would not say but that Oynon ^ should see ^ 

the corpse 
Of one harnessed, armed with a pike, and of a 

wide spread fame ;« 350 

His sword resounded on the summit occupied by 

the camp, ' 

1 Or, " so great, so immense was the slaughter/* Another reading; 
" So great, a sea of radiance was the slaughter,** ** mor o wawr/* in 
reference to the brightness of the weapons. 

' Morien Manawc is mentioned in the "Dream of Rhonabwy**^ as 
one of the counsellors of Arthur, (p. 416.) His grave is pointed 
out in the following lines; — (My v. Arch. toI. i. page 79.) 

" E Beteu ae cut gwitwal 
Ny lictscint hcb ymtial 
Gwrien Morien a Morial. 

The ffraves that have their moandi together, 
Are theirit who fell not unarenged, 
Gwrien, Morien, and Morial. 

His memory was much cherished by the medlaeyal Bards, who not 
unfrequcntly compare their patrons to him. Thus Risserdyn (1290, 
1340.) says that Hywel ap Oruffydd had " vreich Moryen,** the 
arm of Morien ; and his contemporai^ Madawg Dwygraig eulo- 
gises Grufiydd ap Madawg as being " ail Morien,** a second Morien. 

3 " Medut," from " meddu," to possess, or it may signify "rfnotX*,*' 
from ** mcddw.** The kindling of the fire seems to have been for 
the purpose of annoying the enemy. Perhaps the allusion to fires, 
which occurs so frequently in the Poem, may, in some measure, ex- 
plain the burnt and calcined features of many of our old camps. 

* Cynon was probably the general of this camp, under whom Mor- 
ien fought. 

« «♦ Welei.'* Al. make, 

^ Moaning himtdf. Another reading of the latter part of the line 
would bo ** with his brass armour shattered.** 

^ I. e. the camp occupied by the enemy, as the next line clearly 

2 M 

134 ^^^ GODODIK. 

Nor was he moved ^ aside in his coarse b j a ponder- 
ous stone from the wall of the fort,' 

And never again will the son of Pttthan' be 


No hall was ever made so impregnable ;^ 
Had not Morion been like Garadawg,^ 355 

The forward Mynawg/ with his heavy armour/ 
woold not have escaped ; 

> *<Noe AC eKje,** from "j9gog/ to itir. AL** Noeae EMje^^M 
if they were the names of tome Saxon oflifoen^ who hnrled thertone. 
In thn case we ihoold raidor it, 

•< Noc and Eaeye knkd a maniTe atone from the waH of tke felt, 
Aad never." &c 

as if he were cmahod beneath it. Adopting tiie fonner reading, 
howeva-, we mat ol«enre the point of the words ** y^yg ** and "y»- 
gogit,** the one indicatiTe of his ondaonted courage^ tiie odier of his 
BioCionlf state in df^tb. 

M ' 

^*^ y"S7S ** "^f^n Mwy.**— Dr. S. Cent. 
Bcitdeadj ke will iiir no more for aO tlw doctor's ait- 

' Cyhadvan, cyd-advmn, a co-rotroaL 

' AL Teithan. 

4 Or *< tnmnttuoas,'* annovawc, from an not and daw, tamet, gentle, 
Al. ** annmawc,** sent, mrdered. 

* See a deaeription of bn warlike diaracter in the thirtieth stanxa. 

c That is, Moiien himsell^ who bore the epithetMynawg or Ifanawg, 
(kjgk-mindtd.) See preceding stanxa, note two. 

f ** Yn trwm,'* as a person ** seirdUawc saphwyawo— (and per- 
haps) elydnan,** would necessarily be. The bundles of oombustible 
materials, whidi he also earned, would add to the weight of his ar- 
mour, and tend to retard his moTomenta. Or, *' yn trwrn^ may refer 
to the battle, as being a/>rett«re, or a tad affiUr. 


Enraged, he was fiercer than the son of Pherawg/ 

Stout his hand, and, mounted on his steed,' he dealt 
out flames upon the retreating foe. 

Terrible in the city was the cry of the timid mul- 

The van of the army of Oododin was scattered; 860 

Ilis buckler ' was winged with fire for the slaughter; 

In the day of his wrath * he was nimble — a des- 
tructive retaliator; 

The dependants of Mynyddawg deserved their horns 
of mead. 


No hall was ever made so immoveable 
As that of Oynon with the gentle breast, sovereign 
of the saints;^ 865 

^ Qu. Pedrawg, whose son Bedwyr was one of the three crowned 
chiefs of hattle ? 

2 " Varchawo " may he coupled with "fowys," indicating that the 
enemy fled on horseback. 

3 '* Cylchwy,** means a circular inclosure as well as a shield, and 
in that sense it can be taken here, as showing that Morien surrounded 
the camp with fire. 

* " Gwyth ;" another reading gives ** gwych,*' which would have 
the same meaning as <' gowychydd," line 296. 

• Whether we read " ceinion " or " gleinion/* we should have 
the same meaning, vis. — " of the saints/* the Britons being thus dis- 

X36 '^^^ GODODIN. 

He sat no longer on his elevated throne,^ 
Whom he pierced were not pieroed again,' 
Keen was the point of his lance, 
It perforated the enamelled armour, it penetrated 

through the troops ; 
Swift in the van were his horses, in front they 

tore along; 370 

In the day of his anger' blasting ¥ras his blade, 
WhenOynon rushed into battle with the green dawn. 


A grievons descent was made npon his native ter- 
ritory ; 
He ^ suffered an encroachment — ^he fixed a limit ; 

tingnfatKd from tlie pagui S axont. Tbnt Uywaich Hen mjs of 
of Genial that lie 


TW Saxoi** foe, tke frkadof 

i'*Lleitb«,'*«tAnMU,or At dmu iff tkg kmU; w tke btter aeue 
it wo«ld haTO reference to a banquet, and pexliapa *• tal *^ vookl 
mean Ike front or principal aeal wbere Cynoa Mi. Wlien, however. 
Ike battle eonunenced, tbe chieftain quitted Hm convivial board, and 
diipb^jed the valour of a diatinsuiabed iolilier. 

«HiifinttbnBtbei4g8oeft)claaL '* AL ** vrere not recogniBed.** 
bavuM been eo great^ mutilated. 

s iO. ^ in Ike daj of gaUantiy.*" 

A L n. Ktpkin eon of Qvryddno ak QoTTaion ab I>yniwnl lien lu«g 
nffOwt latktoarijpaitofkiilifekewnalkepatnMof T^fierin, 
ke fr n nd 'w ki an inimtin a leatkem bag, eipnwwi on n ilakn 

TUB aoDODiN. 137 

His spear forcibly pushed the laughing chiefs of 
war ; 375 

Even as far as Ephyd ^ reached the valour of the 
forward Elphin : 

The furze was kindled by the ardent spirit, the 
bull of conflict. 


A grievous descent was made upon his native ter- 

The price of mead in the hall, and the feast of 
wine ; 

His blades were scattered about between the two 
hosts ; 380 

of his fatber'b wear. When Elphin was afterwards imprisoned in the 
castle of Dyganwy by Maelgwn Gwynedd, Taliesin by the influence 
of his song procured his release. There is a poem in the Myvyrian 
Archaiology, entitled the " Ck>nsolation of Elphin,** said to have 
been written by the chief of Bards 

Or, more likely, because of his connection with the North, he was 
one of the sons of Urien Rheged, mentioned by Llywarch Hen in 
the following triplet, — 


Pwrllid WalUwg, marchawg trin, 
Er echwydd gwneuthur dyrin, 
Yn erbyn cyvryscdd Elphin." 

Gwallswg, the knight of tumult, would violently rave, 
With m mind determined to try the thupett edge, 
Agminet the conflict of Elphin. 

1 Probably the Epidii, in Cantyre and Argyleshire. Al. *' Hud a 
phyd,** ** The valour of the forward Elphin had recourse to wiles 
and stratagems.** 


Illustrious was the knight in front of Gododiu ; 
The furze was kindled by the ardent spirit, the 
bull of conflict.^ 


A grievous descent was made in front of the ex- 
tended riches,^ 
But the army turned aside, with trailing^ shields, 

And those shields were shivered before the herd of 
the roaring Beli.^. 386 

1 Morion is probably alluded to here again, whose especial de- 
partment seems to have been the superintendence of the martial fire. 
*'Mur greit/* to -which we have given the same meaning as to 
*' Murgreit,** (line 292) might, however, in oonneotion with the rest of 
the verse be differently translated ; thus ** The ftirse was kindled on 
the rampart by the ardent bull of conflict,** or " The Airze was 
kindled by the ardent bulwark, the bull of conflict.** The latter 
construction seems to be favoured by a stanza in "Gyvoesi Merddin,** 
(Myvyrian Arohaiology, vol. i. p. 148,) where Morien is styled 
*' mur trin,*' *' the bulwark of conflict** 

*' Marw Morgeneu marw kyvrennin 

Msrw Moryen mur trin 

Trymmav oedam dy adoed di Vyrdin." 

Morgeneu dead, Kyvrenin dead. 

Moneo the bulwark of conflict oead j 

Moat aad the lingering that thou art left, O Merddin. 

''' The meaning seems to be, that the enemies directed their attack 
to the part which abounded most with riches, or where the treasures 
were collected, or it may rofor to tho banquet ; " alavvudd,** sig- 
nifying the Jlomi^ niead, 

3 " Llaes;** al. *<lliaw8,** nunuroui, 

* Beli son of Benlli, a Cunous warrior in North Wales. Allusion 
is made to his burying place in Englynion y Beddau ; — 

" Pieu y bedd yn v maea mawr, 
Balch a law ar ei lavnawr ? 
Bedd BeU vab BenUi gawr.'* 



A dwarf from the bloody field hastened to the 

fence ;^ 
And on our side there came a hoary headed man, 

our chief counsellor,' 
Mounted on a prancing iebald psteed, and wearing 

the golden chain. 
The Boar^ proposed a compact in front of the 

course — the great plotter ; 
Bight worthy ^ was the shout of our refusal, 390 
And we cried " Let heaven be our protection. 
Let his compact be that he should be prostrated 

by the spear in battle,* 
Our warriors, in respect of their far famed fossc^" 

Who owni the grave In the great plain, 

Proud hit hand upon hia apear? 

The grave of Bdl aon of Benlli Oawr. (Mjr. Arch. t. i. p. 82 J 

Or Deli son of Rhun, a sovereign of North Wales. 

» " Ffln ;" i. o. tho Catrail. 

2 Tlio contriMt Ixstwoon tho appearances of the two heralds is rc- 

* I. 0. tho ** Nar,** tho puny messenger of tho Saxons, compared 
here to a " twrch,^* a boar, or a mole, 

* " Of a worthy character." 
» Or, " the hattlc spear." 

<* " A clat,^* dadd, a trench. " In those parts where it (the Cat- 
rail) is pretty entire, — the fosse is twenty-six and twenty-five feet 
broad ; and in one place which was measured by Dr. Douglas, the 
fosse was twenty-seven and a half feet broad. But in those parts 
where tho rampart has been most demolished, the fosse only mea- 
sures twenty-two and a half feet, twenty, and eighteen; and in one 


Woald not quarrel if a host were there to press 
the ground.^ 


For the piercing ^ of the skilfal and most learned 
man, ' 395 

For the fair corpse which fell prostrate on the 

For the cutting' of his hair from his head, 

For Gwydien, the eagle of the air/ 

pUoe onlj nxteen feet wide.** Ghalmera*8 Caledonia, vol. i. Al. 
*' aelut/* i. e. Aldud, (Dunbarton.) " The warriora upon the fiir- 
Cuned Aldyde.** 

1 Or, ** in behalf of the power.'* 

2 Being skilled in the knowledge of the stars. 

* Lit ** For the falling.** To pull oae*s hair was looked upon 
in the light of a great insult, as we may well infer from the kindred 
one of handling the beard, which was puniahablo by law. Thus e. g. 
a man might legally beat his wife '* am ddymuno mevl ar varv ei 
gwr" — for wishing disgrace on the beard of her husband. Such a 
treatment appears to have been offered to Gwydion, which made 
his attendant determined upon avenging his cause. 

^ " Awyr eryr,** a title given to him in reference to the sublime 
character of his profession. Qwydien, er Owydion, was one of the 
three blessed astronomers of the Isle of Britain. 

" Tri gwyn Seronyddion ynys Prydain. Idrii Gawr, a Owydion mab Don, 
a Gwyn ab Nudd } a chan vahit eu gwybodau am y Mr a'u hanianau a'i han- 
•oddau y darogenynt a chwenycliia ei wybod hyd yn nydd brawd." (Triad 
Ixzziz. third ceries.) 

Two stanzas entitled *' Cad Goddau,** published in the My v. Arch, 
vol. i. p. 167, are ascribed to him. He is reported to have been 
buried in Morva Dinllev. See Englynion y Beddau, (My v. Arch, 
vol. i. p. 78.) 


Did Gwyddwg * bring protection to the field,' 
Resembling and honouring his master. 400 

Morien of the blessed song, brought protection 
To the ruined hall,' and cleft the heads 
Of the first in youth, in strength, and in old age. 
Equal to three men, though a maid, was Bradwen ;^ 
Equal to twelve was Gwenabwy, the son of Gwen.* 


For the piercing of the skilful and most learned 
woman, 406 

Her servant bore a shield in the action. 

1 Owyddwg seems to have been in the service of Qwydien. 

* Al. ** protect him with his spear/* (wayw.) The other reading 
(waen) is preferred on account of the rhyme. 

' "Murdyn ; " it may be *'niur dyn," (the bulwark qf men^) as 
descriptive of the character of Morien, who is elsewhere styled "mur 
trin," see line 382, note. 

* We meet in British history with several instances of female he- 
roism ; the following Triad records the names of three viragos in 
particular; — 

" Tri gwnrorwyn jmyt Prydaln ; Llewei verch Seithwedd Saidi ; a Mederat 
Badellvawr, a Rhorei vawr Terch Usber Galed." (Triad 96, third aeries. ) 

The Englynion Beddau y Milwyr point out the graves of others, — 

" Y beteu yn y morva ys bychan ae haelwy 

Y mac Sanant Syberv vun y mac Run rvvcl achu'y 

Y mac Carwcn vcrch Kennin y moe Ilcdin a llywy.'* (Myv. Arch. i. 82.) 

The frravct on the ihore, on which but little grenerosity has been bestowed, 
Are thoie of Sanant the courteous maid, of Ilhun forcmoat in the war, 
Of Carw'cn daughter of Cennyn, of Llcdyn and I Jywy. 

^ His character has been described before in stanza xxv. 

142 ^^^ OODOIHK. 

And with eoergj his sword fell apmi tlie heads of 

the foe; 
In Lloegjr the duiris eat their wsy brfore tiie diief- 

He who grasps the mane of a wol^ wiUioni a dob' 
In his hand, will hare it gorgeonsly emblazoned on 

his robe.* ^1 

In the engagement of wrath and carnage, 
Bradwen perished, — she did not eeea^. 


Carcases ^ of gold mailed warriors lay npon the city 

None of the houses or cities of Christians* was 

any longer actively engaged iu war;* 415 

1 The lerrant io qnertion, for " unben ** does not ezclusavely mean 
a monarch, but it ia applied alao aa a oomplimentarj appelUtion like 
Iho modem Sir, *' lla uubon I Daw a*eh noddo.*^ '*0 Sir I God pro- 
tect you.** (Kilhwch and Olwcn.) 

3 Al. '* heb benn,** a headless wolf. 

«* It would appear at if the senrant r^aliated in kind upon the 
itlayer of his miitrefls, who was either a wolf in di^KMition, or bore it 
as a badge ; and that 8uch a deed entitled him to bear a coat chaiged 
with figures emblematic thereol 

^ ** Ysgrwydiat.** AL " Gh>ld mailed warriors slept in death, 
(cysgrwyddiad) on the city walls.** 

^ '* Cred,** of- faith, as distinguished from the unbelieving Saxons. 

* ** Aer^awdd,** nimble for slaughter. '* There was a tribute of 
carnage, nor were they long engaged in the tumult of battle.** 

€hr€k, Mael* 


But one feeble man, with his shouts, kept aloof 

The roving birds ;^ 

Truly Syll of Viroin^ reports that there were 

That had chanced to come from Llwy,' 
From around the inlet of the flood ; 420 

He reports that there were more, 
At the hour of mattins,^ 
Than the morning breeze could well support* 


When thou, famous conqueror ! 

Wast protecting the ear of corn in the uplands, 426 

I Another version gives " the birds of battle ;** but both doubtless 
refer to the birds of prey which roved to the scene of battle, prepared 
to perch upon the carcases of the dead. There is something ex- 
tremely natural and affecting in the conduct of the ''feeble man, " 
as here described. 

* Or, " of fair observation : " probably the very individual who 
warded off the birds. The Oorchan Maelderw would indicate that 
Syll was an incorrect transcript of pelUnd or pellwyd, which word 
would supply the blank after hrwydryaij and make the line rhyme 
with the preceding. The passage would then be, ''and drove away 
the roving birds. Truly, Mirain,** &c. 

3 A river so called, which cannot now be identified, as there 
are several in the South of Scotland, which would admit of this 
Welsh form ; such as, the Leith, the Lugar, &c. Perhaps it is the 
same with Aber Lieu, where Urien Rheged was assassinated, and 
Aber Lly w mentioned in the " Elegy on Old Age" by Llywarch Hen. 

* ** In the day of conflict." GorcK MaeL 

144 ^"^^ GODODIN. 

Deservedly were we said to mn ^ like miurked men f 
The entrance to Din Drei ' was not guarded. 
There was a mountain with riches^ for those who 

should approach it. 
And there was a city ^ for the army that should 

venture to enter; 
But Gwynwydd^s name was not heard where his 

person was not seen.* 4do 

lliough there be a hundred men in one houso, 

» AL'Mook." 

"* Gw^r nod ;** this expreaskm his two ngnifleationi, it meuia 
both " men of note ^ and ** slaves.** The Imes that follow aeem to 
restrict it here to the latter sense. 

3 The word Din indicates it to have been a camp or a fort. 

^ We maj suppose this to refer to the property that was collected 
within the camp on the summit of the hilL 

^ *' Dinas,** a fortified town. In these lines we have a graphic 
picture of the panic stricken state of that portion of the army in 
which Aneurin happened to be at this particular time ; and it is a 
fitting prelude to the account of his incarceration which he gives in 
the succeeding stanza but one. But whibt the bard exposes his own 
incapacity, he pays an indirect compliment to the skill and courage 
of Gwynwydd ; such u state of affairs, ho scorns to say, was owing 
to tlio abseiico of that licru on the heights. 

<• Muanhig, perhaps, that hud ho himself boon present, this cowar- 
dice would not have been manifested. We may, however, render tlie 
line thus, — ** Vines are not named when they are not found,** and 
regard it as a proverb intended to illustrate the truth of the foregoing 
statements, viz. that no mention would have lieen made of such 
things had they not really existed. Truth was a necessary element 
of Welsh Poetry. 


I know the cares of war,^ 

Tlie chief of the men must pay the contribution.* 


. I am not headstrong and petulant, 4d4 

I will not avenge myself on him who drives me on,^ 
I will not laugh in derision ; 
This particle * shall go under foot.* 
My limbs ® are racked, 

1 " deny/* i. e. oyni . Lly waroh Hen has introduced a stanza into 
his ** Elegy on Old Age,*' yery similar in some of its expressions ; 

*' Adwen leverydd eyni 

Vranj pan disgjnai ynnffhyTfrdy 

Pen gwr, pan gwin a ddyly." 

2 " Talhcn," a fixed clmrgo, or a tax. A very natural rofloction 
from the head of a family ! 

5 " Gorddin ; " what impels or drives forward j what is posterior, 
ultimate, or following ; the rear. (Dr. Pughe^i Diet.) It would ap- 
pear from this that the captive was pushed along towards his prison 
by some person from behind. 

^ I. e. this treatment I despise, it is beneath my notice, I will re- 
gard it as a particle of dust under my feet. There was a maxim in 
reference to a really felt trouble which said ; — 

** Nid ft gwaew yn ronyn." 
Pain will not become a parUde. 

' How true to nature this disclaimer of any peevish and revenge- 
ful feelings when the power of fully exercising them was taken away ! 
And yet his conduct, as implied in ** gorddin,'* at the same time be- 
lied such a declaration. 

• Lit " my knee." The prisoner here veiy naturally gives vent 
to his feelings in reference to the racking pain which was inflicted 
upon him. 

146 "^^B GODODIN. 

And I am loaded,^ 

In the subterraneous house ; 440 

An iron chain 

Passes over my two knees ; 

Yet of the mead and of the horn,' 

And of the host of Oattraoth, 

I Aneurin will sing^ 445 

What is known to Taliesin, 

Who communicates to me his thoughts, * 

Or a strain of Gododin, 

Before the dawn of the bright day.^ 

The chief exploit of the North ^ did the hero ac- 
complish, 450 

^ '* BundiU,'*^ from pwn. In tho original the lino is imperfect, tho 
particular part of his person tliat was thus pained being left unmon- 

^ lie here summons hack his courage, and hursts into expressions 
of defiance as to the irresistible fraedom of his awen^ declaring that 
he would still in his dismal prison celebrate the praise of his country- 
men, to the disparagement of his enemies at the battle of Cattraeth. 

^ Lit " make," " compose ;*' iroiiw. 

^ Perhaps this may mean no more than that Taliesin*s mind was 
akin to his own. 

ft The dawn of the following morning; or, it may, be the day of li- 

s Or we may put *'goroleddgogledd" in apposition with " gwr,** 
and construe it thus, — 

** The hero, the Joy of the North, eifected it," 
i. e. my deliverance. Llywarch Hen and his sons come ttom the North. 



Of a gentle breast, a more liberal lord could not be 

Earth does not support,^ nor has mother borne 
Such an illustrious, powerful, steel clad warrior ; 
Jiy tho force of his gloaming sword he protected 

From the cruel subterraneous prison he brought 

me out, 465 

From the chamber of death, from a hostile region ; 
Such was Ceneu, son of Llywarch, energetic and 



He would not bear the reproach of a congress,^ 
SenvUt,* with his vessels full of mead ; — 


1 Lit " There does not walk upon the earth.' 

* '* Dihafaroh dmd," the same epithets are applied to Llywarch 
in the following Englyn y Clywed. — 

" A fflvweinti a gfttit Llywarch, 
Ocrlil ncnwr drud dihnvnrch i 
Onid cyvarwydd cyvnrch." 

Didit thou hear what Llywarch sang, 

The intrepid and hold old man 7 

Greet kindly though there he no acquaintance. 

3 lie would not submit to arbitration, which would imply an 
inability to assert their rights by force of arms. 

* Senyllt was the son of Cedig ab Dyvnwal Hen, and father of 
Nndd Hael. The word means seneschal, and perhaps Senyllt acted 
in that character, and had derived his name from thence. The 
term in tho etymological sense would bo applied to Gwen. 

148 '^^^ OODODIN. 

His sword rang ^ for deeds of violence, 400 

He shoated and bounded with aid for the war, 
And with his arm proved a comprehensiye' sup- 
Against the armies of Gh>dodin and Bryneich. 
Booths for the horses were prepared in the hall, ^ 
There was streaming gore, and dark brown har- 
ness, 466 
And from his hand issued a thread* of gleam ; * 
Like a hunter shooting with the bow 
Was Gwen ;' and the attacking parties mutually 

pushed each other, 
Friend and foe by turns ; 

The warriors did not cut their way to flee, * 470 
But were the generous defenders of every region. 

> AL *< He beatowed hit sword upon tho,** &o. 

' Al. " lynwyaBawr;** " he was a plague ; '* or ** with his arm he 
made pools of blood. 

«*« Soil," lit. "foundation.** 

* This socms to countenance the idea suggested in tiie note to line 
3iii, that the Neuadd was none other than tlio camp itself. 

' '' Keingyell,** ceingel; a hank of thread. 

This was probably his sword which flashed. 

' Llywarch Hen*S son, see note to line 272. He was slain *' ar 
ryd vorlas/* on the ford of Morlas, which, as far as its etymology is 
concerned, would veiy well answer to the scene of the battle of 

<* There is much poetic force in this line. 




To Llech Leucu/ the land of Lieu,' and Lleudvre,' 
To the course of Gododin, 
And to the course of Bagno, close at hand. 
Even that hand which directed the splendour of 

battle, 475 

With the branch of Oaerwys,* 
Before it was shattered 
By the season of the storm, — by the storm of the 

To form a rank against a hundred thousand men," 
Coming from Dindovydd, 480 

1 Porhaps Luce Day, noar Z^ucopibia. 

* Lly warch Hen, in his Elegy on Urien Rheged, speaks thus, — 

** Yn Aber Lieu lladd Urien." 
In Aber Lteu Urien was slain. 

3 Probably on the river Lidf or Liddel, on the northern borders 
of Cumberland. 

^ It is not unlikely that the " cangen Gaerwys," formed a part of 
the great fleet of Geraint, who is styled in Brut Tysilio, " Geraint 

^ A poetical definition of a storm in winter. 

* *' Khiallu ^* means also the power of a sovereigny but as it is not 
likely that Aneurin would acknowledge the regal claims of the enemy, 
we have thought it more consistent with the general design of the 
poem to adopt a construction, which shows the advantages possessed 
by the enemy over the natives in point of numerical strength. 

" Dcg myrdd yn y rhiallit, dcg riiiallu yn y vynta, a dc*^ mynta yn y gatyrva." 

Ten myriads in the riallu, ten times the riallu in the mynta, ten mynta in 
the catyrva. 

250 ^^^ OODCHHlf. 

Ib the region of Dymeuiiy^ 

Deeply did tliey^ design,' 

Sharpl J did thej pieree, 

WhoU J did ihej chant, 

Erfe the annj with the battered fihields; 485 

And before the boll of eonflict, 

The hostile Tan was broken. 


The fo6e hare in sorrow greatly trembled. 

Since the battle of most actiye tumult. 

At the border of Ban Garw f 490 

Bonnd the border of Ban Oarw 

The fingers of Brjch ^ were hurt by the shaft of a 

In defence of Pwyll, ' of Disteir and Distar, 

' **Djiu wji/ djrnwydd ; or according to Gorch. MaeL djTwn, 
i. e. Devon, the ooantry of Qeraint ab Erbin. — " Qwr dewr o goettir 
Dyrnaint.** (Lljwarch Hen.) 

' '*Td wodjrn,**from gvfoddew^ porpoae or deugn. Al. ** foddyn,** 
did they drown. 

* Qu. Car&antiom in the province of Yalentia 1 

^ Dyvynawl Yrych, or Donald Breo, who is said in the Scoteh 
Cbronicies to have been slain in the battle of Yraitbe Cairviu, (qn. 
Carw van ?} by Owain king of the Britons. He is introduced to our 
notice again in the Gododin. 

ft Or, a boU, 

* Pwyll in some of the pedigrees of Qwynvardd Dyved is said to 
be the son of Aigoel, or iJrool Law Hir, son of Pyr y Dwyraiu ; but 


In defence of Pwyll, of Bodri, and of Bhych- 
wardd, 494 

A stout ^ bow was spent by Bhys ' in Bhiwdrech ; 

They that were not bold would not attain their 
purpose; ^ 

None escaped that was once overtaken and pierced.^ 


Not meetly was his buckler pierced 
Upon the flank of his steed ; * 

Mr, Davies in the " Rites and Mythology of the DraidSy** states that 
he was the son of Melrig, son of Airool, son of Pyr, which is rather 
confirmed by some other MS« Pedigrees. In TaUesin^ '* Preiddeu 
Annwn,^* he is mentioned, with his son Pryderi, as having joined 
Artliur in somo perilous expeditions. 

" Bu cywair carchar Owair ynshner Sidi 
Trwy ebostol Pwytl a Phryden." ftc. 

Arranged was the prison of Owidr in Caer Sidi 

By the ministration of Pwyll and Pryderi. &e. (Myv. Arch. i. 45.) 

Pwyll is the hero of one of the Mabinogion. 
» Brwys; "of fine growth," "large." 

2 Lly warch Hen speaks of a person of this name. 

" Tywarchen Ercal ar ftr dywal 

Wyr, o edwedd Morial ; 

A gwedy Rhys mae rhysoniaL" (Elegy on Cynddylan.) 

The sod of Ercal is on the ashes of fierce 

Men, of the progeny of Morial ; 

And after Rliys there is great murmuring of woe. 

8 Al. ** from the place where he was once overtaken." 

3 This stanxA evidently contains a reproof to one of the British 
chicfis who turned coward on the field of battle. The circumstances 
mentioned in the two first lines, that his shield was pierced behind 
him, " ar grymal camwyd," (on the crupper of his horse) would in- 

152 "^^^ GODODIN. 

Not meetly did he mount ^ 500 

His long legged, slender, grey charger; 

Dark was his shaft, dark, 

Darker was his saddle;' 

Tbg» hero^ is in a cell,^ 

Gnawing the shoulder of a buck,^ 505 

May his hand triumph, 

But far be the shoulder of venison.' 

dicato that bo was then in tho act of Sooing, holding his shield in 
such a position, as best to protect his back from the darts of his pur- 
suers. Of this the Bard remarks " ni mad," it was not honourable, 
"non bene." 

1 Lit. *' placed his thigh on.*' Llywarch Hen gives quite a differ- 
ent account of his own son Pyll ; — 

** Mad ddodea ei vorddwyd drot obeli 

Ei orwydd, o wng ac o bell." (On Old Age.) 

Gracefully he placed bis thigh over the saddle 
Of his steed, on the near and further side. 

- We may suppose that the Bard looks upon the dark hue of his 
accoutrements as ominous of a mournful and dishonourable result. 

3 A sarcastic irony addressed to the coward himself, who probably 
had boasted of some heroic deeds that he would perform. Where 
are they ? And where is this brave warrior ? Not distinguishing 
himself on tho field of battle ; not entering cities in triumph ^ but in 
a coll gnawing tho shoulder of a buck. 

^ ** GcU." This word has a reference to " goll/* dark^ and it 
may be that Aneurin regarded the one as typical of the other; tliut 
he thought the man who appeared in dark armour would eventually 
be found in a dark cellar. It is not clear whether this person sc- 
crotcd himself, or whether hu was placed by his ouonilos in the 
** coll '* hero uientionud. If tliu furniur, we may ii)gard his eating the 
the venison as a further proof of his unwarliko charactor ; if the latter, 
*'cnoi angoll bwch ^* may bo consiilorod as something tantamount 
to living upon bread and water in our days. 

* AL " hwch,*' a sow. 

* Al. " May triumph be far from bis hand.** 



It is well that Adouwy came to the support of 

Owon ; * 
Jkadwen' abandoned the foaming brine, ^ 
And fought, slaughtered, and burned, though Mo- 

rien 510 

She did not surpass in martial deeds. 
Thou didst not regard the rear or the van 
Of the towering, unhelmetted ^ presence ; 
Thou didst not observe the great swelling sea of 

That would mangle, and grant no shelter to the 

Saxons.* 615 

1 See line 468. It may be inferred from tliis place that the per* 
son just spoken of had abandoned Qwen, which shows his character 
In still blacker colours. 

' See line 404. O shame upon the nameless knight, to flee where 
a woman fought ! 

8 "Dibennor ;" this word may signify either the rabble who were 
not invested with military accoutrements, or such as had no regu- 
lar commander, or the infantry as distinguished from the cavalry 
mentioned in the succeeding line. Though so many were ready to 
attack the Saxons, the circumstance could not inspire our hero(!) 
with any corresponding amount of patriotic feelings. 

* " It is well that Adonwy came, that Adonwy came to the defence of those 

that were left; 
Bradwen foaght, slaughtered, and burned; 
Thou didst not guard either the extremity or the entrance 
Of the towering town; thy helmet did I not behold from the sea, 
From the rampart of the sea, O thou knight worse than a slave.'* 

Gorch. ^fo■i^ 

]^54 '^^^ aoDODiN. 


Gododin ! in respect of thee will I demand ^ 
The dales beyond the ridge of Dram Essyd ;' 
The slaye,' greedy of wealth, cannot control himself; 
By the connsel of thy son/ let thy valour shine 

The place appointed for the conference 620 

Was not mean/ in front of Llanveithin / 
From twilight to twilight he revelled;^ 
Splendid and full was the purple of the pilgrim/ 
He killed the defenceless/ the delight of the bul- 
wark of toil/* 

1 This stanza refers to a conference, to which the Cymry were at 
length fain to submit 

* Trimuntium^ belonging to the SelgOT», in Yalentia. AL ''Thv 
dales beyond the ridges that were cultivatod.** 

3 '* Gwas,'* which means also youth. It is probable that the mes- 
senger or herald of the Saxons is here meant, who being of an avari* 
oious mind made exorbitant demands, was '*heb ymwyd,** could 
not keep his "gwyd," his inclinations or desires, within his own 
breast. Nor was Aneurin on the other hand willing tliat his country- 
men should make concessions ; rather than that, ho calls upon them to 
put forth their strength oucemore, and assert their rights on the field 
of battle. 

* Aneurin, addressing his country. 

* Al. " Plentiful." 

^ Llancurvan in Glamorganshire was anciently called by this name. 
Al. ''* tan veithin;"qu. tan eithin, gorze ftre? 

7 ** Luthvin,"(glwth vin.) Al. ** the edge of his sword gleamed." 

8 The Suxon herald. 

* " Qnaws gwan," him, who was necessarily in a weak or defence- 
less state, namely the British herald. 

^ By the '* bulwark of toil" is probably understood Morten. 


His inseparable companion, whose voice was Uke 
that of Aneurin.* 525 


Together arise the foremost fighting warriors,' 
And in a body march to Oattraeth, with noise and 

oagor spood; 
The effects^ of the mead in the hall, and of the be- 
verage of wine. 
Blades were scattered between the two armies 
By an illustrious knight, in front of Gododin. 530 
Furze was set on fire by the ardent spirit, the bull 
of battle/ 


Together arise the expert warriors, 
And the stranger, ^ the man with the crimson robe, 

> Being Uke him a Bard. 

) ** Cynrennin.** Al. '* expert** The conference having been so 
egregiously violated by the assassination of the British herald, is im- 
mediately broken up, and the advice of Aneurin eagerly followed. 

' Their loquacity and haste had been greatly excited by liquor. 

* See Notes to stanza xxxviii. 

B The treacherous herald before mentioned. 


The encampment is broken down by the gorgeoas 

Where the young deer were in full melody.^ 635 
Amongst the spears of Brycli^ thou couldst see no 

rods ;* 
With the base the worthy can have no concord ;^ 
Morial ^ in pursuit will not countenance their dis- 
honourable deeds, 
With his steel blade ready for the effusion of blood. 

Together arise the associated ^ warriors,. 540 

^ Another way of construing these two lines would be, — 

" Stnuigers to the country, their deeds shall be heard of; 
The bright wave murmured along on its pilgrimage;" 

in reference to the British heroes. 
* According to version 4, — 

*' Where they had collected together the most melodious deer." 

The deer were collected within the encampment for the purpose of 
supplying the army with food, or so as to be out of the reach of ilie 
enemy. The locality was probably that of Uan Carw, the Deer 

3 Dyvynawl Biych. 

^ I. e. no pacific insignia. 

^ A moral reflection suggested by the perfidy of the Saxons at the 
conference of Llanveithin. 

^ Morial is recorded in one of the Englynion y Beddau, (see lino 
348| note 2,) as one who fell not unavenged. His name occurs iu 
one of Lly warch Ilon^s poems, (see lino 4U6. note 2.) Meugant gives 
an account of the expedition of one Morial to Caer Lwydgocd (Lin- 
coln,) from whence he brought a booty of 1500 bullocks. 

? Or, « mutually sharing -* the toils of war. 


Strangers to the country^ their deeds shall be pro- 
claimed ; 
There was slaughtering with axes and blades,^ 
And there was raising large cairns oyer the heroes 
of toil. 


The experienced' warriors met together, 

And all with one accord sallied forth ;/ 545 

Short were their lives, long is the grief of those 

who loved them; 
Seven times their number of Lloegrians had they 

After the conflict their wives * raised a scream ;^ 

1 These two lines may be translated in reference to tlie Saxon 

herald ; 

" The stntnger with the crimson robe parsaed. 
And slaughtered with axes and blades.'* 

* " Cywrein." Al. " The warriors arose, met together, and with 
one accord,*' &c. 

3 Or, '* made the assault.'* 

* Or, simply, " women.** 

' " Q wich,** a shriek; Al. " acted bravely." Al. " were greatly ex- 
asperated;** or perhaps for " gwyth '* we should read gweddw, ** their 
wives they made widows.** Gruffydd ap yr Ynad Coch in his Elegy 
upon Llywelyn, (My v. Arch, i. 396,) makes use of similar senti- 
ments, in the following lines, — 

f ilnwcr dcigr hylithr yn hwylaw ar rudd 
Mawcr ystlys rhudd n rhwyv amaw 
Llu«rer gwaed am draed weal ymdreid^aw 

Llattrer gweddw a gwaedd y amdanaw 



And many a mother has the tear on her eyelash. 


No hall was eyer made so faultless ; 550 

Nor was there a lion so generous, a majestic lion 
on the path, so kind ^ 

As Cynon of the gentle breast, the most comely 

The fame ' of the city extends to ^he remotest parts ; 

It was the staying' shelter of the army, the be- 
nefit of flowing melody.^ 554 

Llftwer meddwl tnrm yn tomnryair 
Llmwer mam heb dad gwedi ei adaw 
Llawer hendref fraith gwedi Uwybrgodaiih 
A llawer diffaitli drwy anrhaith draw 
Llawer lief druan fid ban fu'r Gamlan. 

Mao J aalippery tear Mails down the cheek. 

Many a wounded aide ia red with gore. 

Many a foot ia bathed in blood. 

Many a widow raisrs the nioiirnful ahrick. 

Many a mind ia heavily troubled. 

Many a aon ia left without a fiuher. 

Many an old grey town b deserted. 

Many are ruined by yonder deed of war. 

Many a cry of miaery arises as erst on Camhm fleld. 

* At " Nor was there a hero (lew from glew)" &c Al. ** Nor 
was there a lion so generous, in the presence of a lion of tlie greatest 
course ;*' the latter description referring to some other chief of re- 

'^ Or the etyt ** dios ;** being cither the shout of battle, or tlio voico 
uf distress. 

^ ** Angor,** from ang and gor; lit. a staying round, which in- 
dicates the city in question to have been of a circular form. Proba- 
bly it was one of the forts which are so commonly seen on our hills. 

* That is, either the place where Bards were entertained, or where 
the deer were protected. See line 535. 


Of those whom I have seen^ or shall hereafter see 
On earth, engaged in arms, the battle cry, and war,^ 

the most heroic was he. 
Who slew the mounted ravagers with the keenest 

Like rushes did they fall before his hand. 
son of Olydno,' of lasting' fame! I will sing to 

thee 559 

A song of praise, yithout beginning,^ without end. 


After the feast of wine and the banquet of mead, 
Enriched with the first fruits of slaughter. 
The mother of Spoliation,^ 
Was the energetic Eidol;® 564 

1 " Gwryd,** matUinettf as displayed in war. 

2 I. e. Cynon. 

3 Or, " wide." 

3 A similar expression has been used before (line 512,) ''nac eithaf 
na cbynor.** A " clod heb or heb eithaf,*' simply means imnKntal 

^ The distinguishing feature of this stanxa is its prosopopoeia, or 
its change of things into pcrsons^ns in the case of llwrrcith, Hudd- 
ugre, and Rheiddyn, which are translated respectively Spoliation, 
Victory, and the Liince. 

Eidol or Eidiol Gadarn is recorded as one of the three strong 
men of Britain, having, at the meeting on Salisbury plain, slain 600 
Saxons with a billet of wood. 

•• Tri Uyrdriion Ynys I'rvdain ; Gwrncrth Rrgydlym, a laddc* yr arth mwyaf 
aeawelwyd erioed a ■aetnweUten; aOwgawn Lawgadara, a dreigiia mncn 


Helumoiured the moani of the tbh,^ M5 

In the preflMiee of Victory. 

The hoyering rayens 

Aaoend in the sky ;* 

The foremoet spearmen aronnd him thicken,' 

Like a crop of green barley/ 570 

k «r ||yni I Wa 7 myajdd, ae aid oedd Dai aa ttragUB jA n tfVBai ; 
Gawa, a laddes o^ 8MMM jm mndGMfaaltewg c&wcdMBt a thnt- 
a dMigaU gcvdai o iKhlad kaal yd jB akywylL "(Triad CO. thM Mrica.) 

The tiine here ipectfied " firom mmet nnlil dark,** will noi be 
fimnd to Ullj at all with the eommeiiceaiiiit of the fight at CSat- 
tneth, which ia nid to have beeo '* with the day," and «withthe 
dawn;** thla dreamitanoe m dial to Daviea^ theory. 

The fint linct of thk atanxa maj be translated in dimn waji, i 

" With a feaat «f viae aad a baaqoci «f Bwad, cadowed 
ByCynlaUfa, mocher of Hwnaitb, wai the flneigetic Eidol." 
Ako, — 

" Wi& a fcait of wiae aad a baaqaeC 
Did hMbnnikwrrmUktnuakmHd) 
(^ralaith, enric^ 

Again, — 

" With a feaat of wine aad a banquet of 
Did bis mother Hwmitb 
At the fint fiU of the dew (eya Oaiih) earidi 
The energetie EidoL" 

1 The hill on which the Taoguard was stationed. 
s Waiting their prey. 

2 ** Cynydaw** (cnydiaw,) to yield a crop. Cynydaw means also to 
rise; and we may thus construe the passage^ — 

" The foremoet epearmeii spriag up around him." 

Another reading gives '* cwydaw ** to foil, in allnsion to the slaughter 
of the men; adopting this expression, it would soem that " amaw** 
was more applicable to *' racvre/* the mount of the van. 

^ " Glas heid,** (glas haidd,) green barley. It b rather singular 
that the words, witliout tlie slightest alteration, will admit of ano- 
ther simile equally beautiful and appropriate, viz. — ghu haul, a blue 
swarm of flies. The word glut may be indicative of the prevail- 
ing colour of the dress or armour of the men« 

" As horn the rocky cUiF the shepherd sees 
Clastcriag in hiempu on heiqie the driving bses. 


VVitliout tho semblance of a retreat. 

Warriors in wonder shake their javelins, 

With pouting and pallid lips, 573 

Caused by the keenness of the destructive sword ; 

From the front of the banquet, deprived of sleep 

They vigorously spring forth,^ upon the awaking 

Of the mother ' of the Lance, the leader of the din. 


From the feast of wine and the banquet of mead, 

they marched 
To the strife of mail-clad warriors ;' 
I know no tale of slaughter which records 580 

So complete a destruction. 

Rollioff, and blackening, swirma lUCMeding twannii. 
With deqMT munnara and more hoane alarmi} 
Dusky thejr spread, a close embodied crowd. 
And o'er the Tale aeecenda the living cloud." 

(Pope's Homer, b. ii. 1. lllj 

^ <* Ilodin ;** tliis word scorns of kindred nature with haidd 
(barley,) and is here translated accordingly; (hedeg, to shoot ont, 
or to ear, as com.) Another version gives ** hediw,** (/leddifWf to- 

'^ It is still very common in Wales to call the cause or origin of 
any thing by the name of mam : thus, for instance, we say *' mam y 
drwg*' of the chief instigator of mischief. What we are to under- 
stand by the ''mother of the lance ^* it is not very easy to determine; 
it might have been eouroffe or the sense of torong^ or quairelf or any 
other cause which excited the Britons to fight. 

3 Al. '* They marched and chanted, clad in coat of mail** 

\Q2 '^^^ OODODIN. 

Before Oattraeth loquacious was the host, ; 

But of the retinue of Mynyddawg, greatly to be 

Out of three hundred' men, only one returned. 


From the feast of wine and the banquet of mead, 
¥rith speed they marched, 585 

Men renowned in difficulty, prodigal of their lives ; 

In fairest order' round the viands they together 
feasted ; 

Wine and mead and tribute ^ they enjoyed. 

> « Vawr dru," &o. AL «* miserable hero/' 

* This confirma the view we have taken of the '* siilcant a thry- 
chant** at line 86. 

s « Oloew dull;** in bright array. It may refer also to the viands. 

* '* Mai;** Taliesin, in like manner, says of Urien, that he was, — 

** Un yo darwedd 
Owin a mal a medd." 

Ona who was generous of wine, and bounty, and mead. 

" Mal/* properly speaking, seems to have been a certain tribute, as 
above. Thus we read in Welsh legends ; — 

** He gave bia domain of Clynog to God and to Beuno for ever, without 
either eontributlon or tax mal nac ardreth.") (Buck. Beuno.) 


'* There i« neither contribution nor tax, (na mal na threth) which we ought 
to pay.'* (H. Car. Mag. Mabinogion.) 

The word in the text may signify gifts or presents ; or it may mean 
meo/, (mil, what is ground) in allusion to the mora substantial por- 
tion of the feast 


From the retinue of Mynyddawg ruin baa come to 

And I have lost my general ' and' my true friends. 

Of the regal army of three hundred men that has- 
tened to Oattraeth, 591 

Alas ! none have returned, save one alone. 

Impetuous as a ball/ in the combat of spears, was 

And on his horse would he be found, when not at 

Yet illusive^ was the aid which he brought against 

Gododin ; 695 

1 Lit ** I am being rained.** 

' Mynyddawg himself. 

' AI. " From amongst.** 

* That is, free and precipitate in his course, as a baU flies through 
the air. This simile seems to have been borrowed from a popular 
game among the Britons called jpeZre, which consisted in the beating 
of a ball backwards and forwards, and is alluded to by Taliesin in 
the following lines; 

** rdnindon moch dywid eii govAlon : 

Marchawglu mor doer am Goer Llion { 

A dinl Idwal ar Aranwynion 

A gwnro pclre a phcn Socton .*' (Mjt. Arch. i. p. 73.) 

Songsters, soon would their csres be beard ; 
An army of horsemen so harassing round Caer LUon ; 
And the revenge of Idwal on the Aranwynians ; 
And the playing of ball-buffetting with Saxon heads. 

Al. " mab Pel ;" Present the son of Pel. 

" «« Ilud: '* has this word any reference to " AtK^wg, a racket for 
ball playing ? 


For though apart from the wine and mead be was 

He perished^ on the course; 
And red stained warriors ride^ 
The steeds of the knight, who had been in the 

morning bold. 

Angor,^ thou who scatterest the brnve, ooo 

And piercest^ the sullen like a serpent; 
Thou tramplest upon those who in strong mail are 

In front of the army;* 
Like an enraged bear, guarding and assaulting,^ 

> ** Ystiyng ;** from y« and trifng or trtngu, 

2 ** Adan;** tbat U a dan^ will go under. Lit "under tUe red* 
stained warriors go the steeds,** &c. '* Ymdan march,** is a well known 
phrase for mounting a horse. 

s The same, it may be, with Angar, one of the sons of Caw of 
Cwm Cawlwyd, and brother of Aneurin. A saying of liis occurs in 
the ChwedUu*r Doethion. (lolo MSS. pp. 250, 654.) 

** A glywcist ti cliwcdl Angar 
Mab Caw, Catfilwr clodgar? 
Bid tonn calon gan alar." 

Hut thou heard the aaying of Angar, 
Son of Caw the celebrated warrior ? 
The heart will break with giief. 

* ** Uaen,** from rAa, which is also the root of rhain, spears. 

A This passage, in another form^ occurs three times in the Mael- 
derw veision and may be translated as follows ; 

" Angor, thou aeatterer of the brave, 

Sopent, piercing pike. 

And ImmoToble atone in the front of the army." 

• Al. <* Oppressor, dressed in thy shining white robes.** 


Tliou tramplest upon the furious,* 605 

In the day of capture, 

In the dank entrenchment;^ 

Like the mangling dwarf, ^ 

Who in his fury prepared 

A banquet for the birds, mo 

In the tumultuous fight. 

Cywir* art thou named from thy righteous (entcir) 

Leader, director, and bulwark (mur) of the course 

of battle* 
Is Merin;® and fortunately (mad) wert thou, 

Madien, born. (U4 

I *' Gwacnawr." Al. " The spears." Al. •* Tlie stones." 
' That is, the fosse of the Catrail, or that which surrounded one 
of the camps. 

3 See lines 386, 624, 534. Al. " like ploughing the furrow." 
' The Bard in this stanza evidently plays upon the names of three 
of the British heroes, showing how appropriately they represented 
their respective characters; Cywir, enwir ; MeriUfmur; Madien, 
mad. Perhaps it would be better to transpose the two first, and 
read the line as it occurs in one stanza of the Gorchan Maelderw ; 

" Enwir ith clwir oth gywir wcithred.** 

Enwir art thou named from thy righteous deed ; 

for in '* Kilhwcli and Olwen " we meet with a person bearing the 
name of Gweir Gwrhyd Ennwiry who is said to have been an uncle 
of Arthur, his mother's brother. 

« ** Bulwark of every tribe." Al. "of every language.'* Oorch, 

Merin the son of Merini ab Seithenyn, king of the plain of 
Owyddno, whose land was overflowed by the sea. lie is said to have 




It is incumbent to sing of the complete acquisition 

Of the warriors, who at Oattraeth made a tumul- 
tuous rout, 

With confusion and blood, and treading and 

Men of toiH were trampled because of the contribu- 
tion of mead in the horn ;' 

But the carnage of the combatants^ 

Oannot be described even by the cup of bounty,^ 

After the excitement of the battle is over, <>20 

been the founder of the church of Llanyerin, or Llanvetherin, Mon- 
uiouthsbire. In the Gorchan Maelderw Merin ia called the son of 

1 Al. "Gwynedd." 

' I. e. the drinking horn. ''Dial;** Oorch, Mad, " to take ven- 
geance for the contribution of mead.** Owain Cyveiliog alludes to 
thia circumstance in his Poem on the Hirlas Horn ; — 

" Kiglcu am dal met myncd drelg Kattraeth.'* (Myv. Arch. i. tGO.) 

That this author was acquainted with the Qododin appears further 
from the following, 

" Nid ym hyn dihyll nam hen dehcu ;" 

whore he evidently refers to line 200 of our Poem. 

3 it Cyvyringct/* tlioso who met together botwcou the two anuioii; 
from oyvrwng, cyd-rhwng. 

* '* Cibno ced/* seems to have been the cup of drink presented tu 
bards and minstrels by their entertainers. (See line 845.) Not even 
the speech inspiring influence of this cup, could elicit an adequate 
description of the slaughter which ensued at Oattraeth. 


Notwithstanding so much splendid eloquence. 


It is incumbent to sing of so much renown, 
The tumult of fire, of thunder, and tempest, 
The glorious gallantry of the knight of conflict. ^ 
The ruddy reapers of war are thy desire,' 625 

Thou man of toil, ^ but the worthless thou behead- 

The whole length of the land shall hear of thee in 

battle ; 
With thy shield upon thy shoulder, thou dost in- 
cessantly cleave 
With thy blade,'' until blood flows ^ like bright wine 
out of glass vessels f 

1 Or, ^' the gallantry of the glorious knight of conflict.*^ 

' Lit. ** Rnddy reaping/* Al. '* Rnddj reaper, thon pantest for 

' Al. " Thon man of Qwynedd." 

* Lit. " Thou unmanest ;" di-mwng. 

»*«Llain." Al. "lance." 

^ The expression " until blood flows ** is not in the original. 

^ That glass vessels were used by the Britons in the sixth centiirv 
is fiirther proved by the testimony of Lly warch Hen, who speaks of 

" Gwyr ni giliynt rhag ovn gwsjw, 

Ac yved gwin o wydr gloyw." (Elegy upon Oeraint ) 

Men who would not flinch from the dresd of the spear. 
And the quaffing of wine out of the bright gUwa. 


As the contribution ^ for mead thou claimest gold; 
Wine nourished was Gwaednertb,' the son of 
Llywri. 631 


It is incumbent to sing of the gay and illustrious 

That; after the fatal fight,^ filled the river Aeron ;^ 
Thqir grasp satisfied the hunger ^ of the eagles of 

And prepared food for the birds of prey. 635 

Of those yrho went to Oattraeth, wearers of the 

golden chain. 
Upon the message of Mynyddawg^ sovereign of the 


1 '* Ariant," money contributed towards any thing; tlius "ariant 
cwynos/* supper money, was paid by the gentry and freeholders to- 
wards the maintenance of the officers of the court; ** ariant gwas- 
trodion," money of the equerries, was paid by the king^s tenants in 
villainage once a year, to furnish provender for his horses; *' ariant 
am y vedd ** would likewise be a contribution paid towards a ban- 
quet of mead, Gwaednerth made his enemies, as it were, pay him 
this tribute with the gold of their armour. 

'^ His history is unknown. 

3 Or, "retinue." 

A <'Dyrraith;** law of fiite; death. 

^ Probably Ayr in Scotland, rather than Aeron in Wales. 

"Lit. <* the head.** 

' I. e. the Clyde. Al. **The brown eagles.'* Llywarch lieu 
speaks of *' the brown eagles ** (eryron llwyd,) and of ** the eagle 
with the brown beak,** (eryr pengarn llwyd.) 


There came not honourably^ in behalf of the Bry- 

To Gododin, a hero from afar who was better than 

Cynon. C39 


It is incumbent to sing of so many men of skill/*' 
Who in their halls ^ once led a merry life : ' 
Ambitious ® and bold, all round the world would 

Eidol ^ seek for melody ; 
But notwithstanding gold, and fine steeds, and in- 
toxicating mead, 
Only one man of these^ who loved the world, re- 
turned, 644 
Cynddilig of Aeron, one of the Novantian heroes.* 

» Lit «' Without reproach/* 
" Or, '* From the region." 
« Al. " Mon of privilege.'' 

* *< lilogoll ; a rocoptMlo, a dopoflitory, a oloflot It might tivre 
refer more particularly to the room which contained the Tiatids. 
** LlogniP' would be a wattled room. 

' The frequent repetition of the word ** byd*' in this stanza i» re- 

« Lit. " not without ambition.'* 

7 Eidol is specified by name as being the most indefatigable in his 
pursuit after mirth. A person of that name and character is men- 
tioned in a poem attributed to Cuhelyn. See Myv. Aroh, i. 164. 

* Or, ** the grandson of Enovant." Al.'' One out of a hundred,'" Cyn- 




Tt is incumbent to sing of the gay and illustrious 

That went upon the message of Mynyddawg, so- 
vereign of the people, 

And the daughter ^ of Eudav the Tall, of a fault- 
less gait,' 

Apparelled in her purple robes, thoroughly and 
truly splendid. 049 

ddilig might have been the son of Cor Cnud, whose grave is re- 
corded in the Englynion y Beddau. (Myv. Arch. i. 11.) 

" Kian a ud diffaith cnud. 
Draw o tuch pen bet alltud 
Bet Cindilic mab Corkuud." 

Or the son of Nwython, mentioned in the Brute, (Myv. Arch. ii. 
321.) and Genealogy of the Sainto. (lolo MSS. 137.) Or else he 
might have been the son of Lly warch Hen, — 

" Och Cjrnddilig, na buott wraig I" 

Ob, Cynddilig, why wert thou not a woman ! 

(Elegy on Old Age.) 

The mention made of Aeron in the foregoing stanza naturally led tlie 
Bard to speak in this of a ohioftuin eonnoctod therowith. 

1 Wore it not for the anuchi-onlsui wo should ho induced to regard 
this lady as none other than Elou the daughter of Kudav, prince of 
Erging and Euas, and wife of Macsen Wlodig ; heroine also of a Ko- 
uianco entitled ** The Dream of Macsen Wledig.** As Macsen, how- 
ever, is known to have been put to death as early ns the year 388, 
Elen*s life could not possibly have been so protracted as to enable 
her to take a part in the battle of Cattraeth. 

- '* Dieis.** Al. ** her thrusto were penetrating.** 



The soldiers ^ celebrated the praise of the Holy One, 

And in their^ presence was kindled a fire that raged 
on high. 

On Tuesday they put on their dark-brown gar- 
ments ; ' 

On Wednesday they purified their enamelled ar- 
mour ; 

On Thursday their destruction was certain ; 

On Friday was brought carnage all around ; 655 

On Saturday their joint labour was useless ; 

On Sunday their blades assumed a ruddy hue ; 

On Monday was seen a pool knee deep of blood.^ 

1 **Meiwyr,** men of the field. Al. ** Meinir,*^ the slender maid, 
which might refer to the daughter of Eudav. 

' The Gorchan Maelderw clearly indicates that the fire was kindled 
in the presence of the army, and not for religious purposes before the 

3 This stanza explains the expression used in line 116. Seven 
days, then, we may suppose, formed the whole space of time during 
which the events related in the Gododin occurred. The action of 
Homer *s Iliad occupied nearly fifty days. 

^ The daily operations are somewhat differently stated in the frag- 
ments of the Gododin, which are appended to " Gorchan Maelderw.** 
There they are as follows, — 

" On l\ie8day they put on their splendid robei t 

On Wednesday bitter was their assembly j 

On Thursdinr messengers formed contracts ; 

On Friday there was slaughlcr ; 

On Saturdaj they dealt mutual blows ; 

On Sunday they were pierced by ruddy weapons ) 

On Monday a pool of blood knee deep was seen.*' 



The Gododin relates that after the toil, 
Before the tents of Madog, when he returned, 
Only one man in a hundred with him came.^ 


At the early dawn of mom,^ 

There was a battle at the fall of the riveri^ in front 

of the course ; ^ 
The pass and the knoll were pervaded with fire; ^ 
Like a boar didst thou^ lead to the mount ; 665 
The wealth ^ of the hill, and the place, 

^ See lines 27, &o. It would appear as if the three lines at the 
end of the stanza were appended to it by some compiler, merely on 
account of their uniformity of rhyme. 

' Lit, '* At the early arising morn,** or *' quickly rising in tlio 

* ** Aber;** the junction of rivers; the tall of a lesser river into a 
greater, or into the sea. By metaphor, a port or harbour. 

* Or more definitely, — ** Occurred the battle of Aberjn firont 
of the course.** 

6 Or <* a breach was made, and the knoll was pervaded with fire.** 

* The stanza is imperfect, which accounts for the omission of the 
the hero^ name. From the Gorchan Maelderw we would infer that 
he was Qwair one of the three " taleithiawg cad,** or coronettcd 
chiefr of battle. (Myy. Arch. U. 12.) 

' Probably, the valuables collected within the encampment on the 


And the dark brown hawks ^ were stained with 


Quickly rising, in a moment of time,^ 

After kindling a fire at the confluence, * in front of 

the fence,* 
After leading his men in close array, 670 

In front of a hundred he pierces the foremost.^ 
Sad it was that you should have made a pool of 


1 This word may be taken either in its literal sense, as alluding to 
the birds of prey that devoured the dead bodies, or else metaphori- 
Rally as denoting the warriors themselves. In the latter sense Cas- 
nodyn uses it in the following passage ; 

*' Cynan— 

Eryr tymyr gwyr, gweilch ilisaesneg.'* 

Cynan, the eagle of the land of men, who are heroes with no English. 

In this sense "gwrwnde *^ would necessarily allude to the colour of 
the men's habiliments. 

3 The stanza is thus varied in Qorchan Maelderw, 

"At the early dawn of nforn they marched 

To conflict, headed by the kina in front of the eoune ; 

Gwair was greeted by the fluia gore 

In the van of the battle; 

He was a beloved friendl 

In the day of distress 

The wealth of the mountain, the place, 

And the forward beam of war, wore a murky hue.** 

(Gorch. Mael.) 

3 " Eilin;** in a second ; another reading has '* meitin,** a word of 
similar import, signifying a space of time. 

* " Abcr;'* ut supra. 

^ Tlic Catrail, or else the vallum of our hcro^ camp. 

* That is, single handed he faces a hundred men of the enemy. 


As if you but drank mead in the midst of laughter;^ 
But it was brave of you to slay the little man^^ 
With the fierce and impetuous stroke of the sword; 
For like the unrestrained ocean' had the foe^ put 

to death 676 

A man, who would otherwise have been in rank his 



He fell headlong down the precipice,^ 

And the bushes^ supported not his noble ' head ; 

1 Thftt you nhould haTe oommitted such a slaughter with the same 
ooolness and indifference, as if you were merely revelling over your 

* " Dynin,**the dwarf, who had killed the British herald, contrary 
to the law of war. Al. *< * * * with the edge 

and stroke of the sword, the fierce warrior.** 

*' It WM such a thrust to the litUe man.'* (Gorch. MaeL ) 

' "Mor ddiachor;'* it may be also translated "how unrestrainedly.*' 
The Qorchan Madderw has it '*mor diachar,** how unamiahltf^ 
which seems to be required by the rythmical run of tlie passage ; 

" Oed mor diachar 
Yt wanei eicar.*' 

^ It is not quite clear whether this person be the same with the 
one mentioned in stanza lii. or whether another events of a similar 
character with that described therein, be not here introduced. We 
are inclined, however, to consider both passages as referring to the 
same act of treachery. 

' Probably from the top of the rampart. 

* ** Cynyt,'* (cynnud;) fire wood. The bushes growing out of the 
sides of tlie vallum checked not his h\\, Al. " C^wydd,** liis song; 
though this word derived from cy and gwydd, may likewise have 
the same meaning as the former. 

7 ** Cy wrenhin,** (cywreiuin;) accurate, elaborate; well formed, 


It was a violation of priviloge to kill him on the 

breach/ 680 

It was a primary law that Owain should ascend 

upon the course,^ 
And extend before the onset the branch of peace,^ 
And that he should pursue the study of meet^ 

and learned strains. 
Excellent man, the assuager of tumult and 

Whoso very grasp dreaded a sword,* 685 

And who bore in his hand an empty corslet.® 

handsome. If it may be taken actively, the meaning in this place 
would he shilful or talented, which epithet would apply well to him 
as a bard. 

1 It will be recollected that the " gorgeous pilgrim/* (line 534) 
broke down the encampment; on the supposition, then, that he was 
identical' with the ** foe *' mentioned in the last stanza, we may im- 
agine him encountering Owain with his badge of truce at the rery 
breach ho was making, and that he then and there put him to death. 
It is not impossible, however, but that Owain was another herald who 
renewed the offer of peace, after the death of the '' delight of tho 
bulwark of toil,'* and that both were dishonourably slain by the 
same perfidious messenger. 

2 That is, he was entitled in right of his office, as herald, to every 
protection and safety, whibt engaged in proposing terms of peace. 

s Lit. ** The best branch.'* " The wand denotes privilege.** See 
lolo MSS. p. 634. 

* Lit. " due.** 

" " Tlireo things are forbidden to a bard; immorality, to satirize, 
and to hear arms,*^ (Institutional Triads.) 

^ Quasi dioat, " did not wear one.' 



O sovereign, dispense rewards 
Out of his earthly shrine.^ 


Eidol, with frigid blood and pale complexion, 
Spreading carnage, when the maid was supreme in 

judgment ; ' OSK> 

Owner of horses and strong trappings. 
And transparent ''shields. 
Instantaneously makes an onset, — ascending and 


> That is, avenge his death. There is a reference here to the 
custom of distributtog gifts out of a oo£fer, suggested by the similar 
rity between the expressions ** pridd prenial/* the earthly shrine or 
coffin, and "prid prenial,** the price chest. 

1 '* Dam ben ** might have the sense of adjudged to lose her head, 
capitis damnata ; in which case the passage would be translated as 
follows : — 


It was a violation of privilege to •entenee a woman to death." 

The other construction is, however, more especially countenanced 
by a similar expression in " Gwasgargerdd Vyrddin,'* where the 
meaning is obvious. 

" Pan dyyo y brych cadara 

Hyt yn Rhyt Pengarn 

Lliwaut gwyr treuUaut Kara 

Pendevic Prydein yno pen Bam -,** (Myv. Arch* i. 132.) 

And on that account is preferred hero. There is reason to tli ink- 
that the Lady in question is tho daughter of Eudav, already menti- 
oned, upon whose message, as well as that of Mynyddawg, " the 
gay and the illustrious tribes,** proceeded to Cattraeth. It is ob- 
servable, as confirmatory of this view, that Eidol was introduced into 
our notice before in the stanza inunediately preceding that in which 
she is celebrated. 



The leader of war with eagerness^ conducts the 

Mallet of tho land,' ho loved the mighty rea- 
pers ;' 695 
Stout youth,' the freshness of his form was stained 

with blood, 
His accoutrements resounded, his chargers made 

a clang)^ 
His cheeks * are covered with armour, 
And thus, image of death, he scatters desolation in 

the toil ; 
In the first onset his lances penetrate the tar* 

gets, ^ 700 

And a track of surrounding light is made by the 

aim of the darting of his spears. 

» *< Rhy," excessively. 

* « Gwlad gwM;^ "^dd werydd.'* In the Triads Eidol is called 
one of the three gyrddton of the Isle of Britain. (Triad, 60.) 

> The agricultural character of the usual employments of tlie 
early Britons in times of peace, is clearly inferred from the frequent 
use of the word ** medel,** in reference to their soldiery. 

^ Or, '< He sounded for steeds, he sounded for harness."* 

• " Am grudd;" his cheeks all around, 
8 Or, " the ribs." 

X78 '^^^ OODODIN. 


The saints ^ exert their courage,' for the destruc- 

tion of thy retreat,' 
And the cellar, ^ which contained, and where was 

The mead, that sweet ensnarer. 
With the dawn does Gwrys' make the battle 

clash ; 705 

Fair gift,' — marshal of the Lloegrian tribes ; ' 
Penance he inflicts until repentance ensues ;' 

* The Cymry were thus styled to distinguish them from the Saxons, 
who were psgans. See supra, line 365. 

2 *'Amnant/* from "avn,** boldness, courage. 
'"Cell;** a cell, a closet, a grove. Perhaps it here means a 
koute, or h(ibUatum in general . 

* Lit. the room, or chamber. 

* " Yt vyddei dyrllyddei ; '* where was, where was brewed; " or, 
*' where it was wont to brew.** 

^ A person of the name of *' Qwres the son of Rheged,** is menti- 
oned in the " Dream of Rhonabwy,** in conjunction with Owain ab 
Urien. Gwrys seems to have been a Yenedotian chief. 

Y The Welsh poets frequently represent a man of worth, as a ced, 
or a gift. 

B As the Llo^rians have been shown before to be clearly amongst 
the enemies of the British chiefs, (see line 547.) the meaning of this 
dontence is, that the hero under consideration was the conqueror, or 
the master of the Lloegriuus; und that ho thus mandiallcd thorn 
against their will. In like manner Einion ab Gwalchuiai describes 
Llywelyn as, — 

*' Uywdyn Uew glwy«, Loegrwys lugyrn.*' 

Uywelyn the amiable lion, the torch of the Uoegriana. 

' ** Attawr;** al. " allawr,** the altar. A metaphor borrowed firoui 
the discipline of the church, and in keeping with the title of taints, 
by which the chieftain and his foUowerB are designated. 


May the dependants of Gwynedd hear of his re- 

With his ashen shaft he pierces to the grave; 
Pike of the conflict of Gwynedd, 710 

Bull of the host, oppressor of the battle of princes;^ 
Though thou hast kindled the land ' before thy fall, 
At the extreme boundary ' of Oododin will be thy 



Involved in vapours was the man ^ accustomed to 

High minded, bitter handed leader of the forces ; ^ 
He was expert, and ardent, and stately, 716 

1 Lit. *' the batUe of sovereignty/* 

? ** Cynnest,** Al. "oyn cywest,'* "before tboQ art allied to the 
earth/* before thou formest an acquaintance or connection with the 
earth by falling thereon. 

s '* Gorffin f * the CatraU. 

* We haTe repeatedly seen that fire was resorted to in this war, 
for the pnrposo of annoying or destroying the adversary, or else in 
self dofonco, with the view of hooping him at bay. On tho part of 
the Dritons the fire dopartmont sooms to have been presided over by 
Morien ; and indeed the title ** Mynawo,** which we have here tran- 
slated highrminded^ and which is elsewhere connected with the name 
of Morien, would induce us to infer that the Bard, in the above 
stanxa, is presenting us onco more with a prospect of that hero sur- 
rounded by his own blazing engines. 

^ '* Lluyddawg.** Al. * 'The successful (llwyddawg) bitter-handc(|; 
high-minded chief/* who may have been Llyr lluyddawg. (Tr. xxiii.) 


Though at the social banqaet he was not harsh. ^ 
They ' removed and possessed his yaluable trea- 
And not the image of a thing for the benefit of the 
region was left. 


We are called ! The sea and the borders are in 

conflict ;• 720 

Spears are mutoally darting, spears all equally de- 

Impelled are sharp weapons of iron,^ gashing is 

the blade,* 
And with a clang the sock ' descends upon the pate; 
A successful warrior was Fflamddwr ' against the 


^ The oontnat between hit conduct in wtr and his domefltic cbe- 
meter it here noticed. 

* I. e. the enemy. 

> Or, ** we are called to the Ma and the bordera, (or to the har- 
boon " cjonwr,** from cyn>dwfr,) to engage in the conflct.'* 
« Lit. ** Sharpened iron.'* 

* *< Sjchyn^** a email plongfaahare. Donbtlem a weapon reaembl* 
ing it, and bearing the lame name. Al. ** Syrthjn,** ** Tliey fell 
headlong with a dang.** 

' We have adopted this aa a proper name from ita amilarity to 
Filewddnr Fflam, the name of one of the three aoToreigns of Arthur^ 



He supported martial steeds and harness of war ; 

Drenched with gore, on the red-stained field of 
Oattraeth, 720 

The foremost shaft in the host is held by the con- 
sumer of forts,^ 

The brave* dog of battle, upon the towering hill. 

We are called to tlie gleaming ' post of assault, 

By the beckoning hand^ of Heiddyn,® the iron- 
clad chief. 730 

The sovereign, who is celebrated in the Gododin,® 

court, who preferred remuning with htm as knights, although they 
had territories and dominions of their own. 

** Tri unben Lljrs Arthur; Goronwy mb Echel ForddwydtwII, a Chadnuth ab 
Porthor Oodo ; a Fleidar Fflam mab Oodo t tef oeddent yn Drwysogion yn 
Rerchcnnoffion Gwlnd a Chyfoeth. a awcll oedd gnnddynt no nynny aroi yn 
Fnrchopirm yn Llyi Arthur, gnn y bcmid hynny yn l)«nnaf ar bob anrhydedd 
a bonheddigciddrwydd, a ellid wrtli y gair y Tri CnyflawnFarebawg." (Trind, 
114, third series.) 

If, however, it bo not a proper name, the line might be rendered, — 

" A sueeessful warrior, flaming in steel, before the enemy." 

1 " Dinus;" from " din," a fort, and "ysu," to consume. 
« " Gwych.*' Al. *• the angry." 
»0r, "the honourable.** 

* " Echadaf," i. e. «* ech," •« ex, and " adav," a hand. 

' A person of this name is ranked in the Triads as one of the threv 
** trw^ddcdawg hanvodawg,'* or free guests of tlic court of Arthur. 
(Myt. Arch. ii. 73 ) 

• Or, " the sovereign of the impregnable strand, or extremity of 
Oododin,** traeth y annor (an nhor.) 


] f;2 ^^^ OODODIN. 

The sovereign, for whom oureje-lids^ weep, 
From the raging flame of Eiddyn' turned not 

He stationed men of firmness in command,^ 
And the thick covering guard ^ he placed in the 

van, 735 

And vigorously he descended upon the scattered foe; 
In that he had revelled, he likewise sustained the 

main weight; 
Of the retinue of Mynyddawg^ none escaped. 
Save one man hy slow steps, thoroughly weakened, 

and tottering every way.® 

Having sustained a loss,^ Moried bore no shield. 

1 ** Am rann, (i. e. arorant.) See line 40. 

* The city of Mynyddawg, from whence he was called Mynydd> 
awg Eiddyn. 

3 Or, ** The raging flame turns not from Eiddyn.** 

* Or, ** at the entrance or gate.** 

5 «*Trusi;** al. *' trin;** '* he placed a thick cover in front of the 

The effecU of his toil in battle. 

7 Al. *' O goledd,** by arrangement, being actuated by the same 
motive as that which induced Gwrgao the Freckled long before to 
*' enact a law that no one should bear a shield, but only a sword and 
bow;** hence it is said, '<his countrymen became very heroic.** 
(loloMSS. p. 851.) 


But traversed the strand^ to set the ground on 

fire ; 741 

Firmly he grasped in his hand a blue blade. 
And a shaft ponderous as the chief priest^s' cro- 

zier ; 
He rode a grey stately' headed charger, 
And beneath his blade there was a dreadful fall of 

slaughter; 745 

When overpowered * he fled not from the battle, — • 
Even he who poured out to us the famous mead, 

that sweet ensnarer. 


I beheld the array from the highland of Adowyn,® 
And the sacrifice brought down to the omen fire ;®. 

1 Lit. " the strand supported.** Traeth means also the extremity 
of a district, and may accordingly be applied here to the boundary 
line between Gododin and the BriUsh dominions 

' ** Periglawr ;" one who has to do with what is extreme, or dan* 
gerous ; one who administers extreme unction ; a parish priest. 

' Al. *'penifeddawr/* giddy-headed. Al. " penufuddawr ** having 
an obedient head — rein-obeying. 

* Al. ** The mounted spearman.'* 

B Another reading gives *'Odren/* but the one adopted above suits 
the rhyme better. 

* There is a reference here to some pagan ceremonies to which 
the Saxons had rccoursoi for the purpose cither of propitiating their 
gods, or of receiving omens at tlioir altars. 


I saw what was usual, a continual running towards 
the town/ 750 

And the men of Nwython inflicting sharp wounds ; 

I saw warriors in complete order approaching with 
a shout, 

And the head of Dy vnwal Vrych * by ravens ^ de- 


Blessed Oonqueror, of temper mild, the strength ^ 
of his people, 

I A body of British soldiers under the command of Nwython son 
of Qildas, and nephew of Aneurin, seem to have taken advantage of 
the peculiar position of the enemy, who were now probably unarmed, 
and to have attacked them, which caused the latter, as usual, to seek 
refuge by flight in one of Uie neighbouring forts. That we are right 
in adopting Nwython as a proper name would appear, moreover, 
from two different passages in the fragments of the Gododin sub- 
joined to Gorchan Maelderw, where " the son of Nwython,*^ is dis- 
tinctly mentioned as one of the heroes that fell at Cuttrueth. 

'* Donald Brec, or as ho is called in Latin, Dovenul Varius, king 
of the Scots, who was slain by Owain, king of the Strathdyde Bri- 
tons in the battle of Vraithe Gairvin, otherwise Calatros, which in 
sound somewhat resembles Galltracth, or Cattraeth. It is true that 
the Scottish chronicles assign a much later date to that ovcnt, than 
the era of the Gododin, nevertheless as they themselves are very in- 
consistent with one another on that point, giving the different dates 
of 629, 642, 678 and 686, it is clear that no implicit deference is 
due to their chronological authority, and that we may, therefore, 
reasonably acquiesce in the view which identifies Dyvnwal Vi^cli, 
with Donald Brec, seeing the striking similarity which one name 
bears to the other. 

' Supposing the person who killed Donald to be the same with 
Owain, son of Urien, there may be here an allusion to his men as 
well as to the birds of prey. See line 1 8 note one. 

^ Lit. <' The bone;** oven as it is popularly said at this day that a 


With his blue streamers displayed towards the sea 

roving foes.* 755 

Brave is he on the waters, most numerous his 

Manly his bosom, loud his shout in the charge of 

Usual was it for him' to make a descent before 

nine armaments,^ 
With propulsive strokes,^ in the face of blood and 

of the country. 
I love thy victorious throne, which teemed with 

harmonious strains, 
O Oynddilig of Aeron,*^ thou lion^s whelp. 761 

man who givefl great rapport to another is his baok bone. 
" Caletieh wrth elyn DOg Mgwrn.'* ' 
Hftcder (0 MI enemy thtn a bone. (Elegy on Cmiedda.^ 

J Or, " whilst the foes range the sea.** 

* Lit '* It was his characteristio or property.** 

' ** Naw rhiallu ;** the literal amount of this force would be 
900,000; *< naw/* however, may have here the meaning of "nawv/* 
floating; " naw rhiallu/* a fleet. 

* " Qordclinau;*' from •*gorddin,'* what impels or drives forward; 
or the word may mean tribes, from '*oordd; and then the passage 
would be : 

*' In the fitce of blood, of the eountry, and of the tribes." 

B Gynddilig was introduced to our notice before, (line 645) as a 
person who loved the world in company with the melody-seeking 



I could wish to have been the first to shed my 

blood in Gattraeth, 
As the price ^ of the mead and beverage of wine in 

the hall ; 
I could wish to have been hurt by the blade of the 
sword, 764 

Ere he was slain on the green plain of Uphin.^ 
I loved the son of renown, who sustained the bloody 

And made his sword descend upon the violent. 

Oan a tale of valour be related before Oododin, 

In which the son of Oeidiaw^ has not his fame as 

a man of war! 

1 Or, ** as the alternative.** 

' That this is a proper name, appears firom the following passage 
in Taliesin*^ " Canu y Cwrw;**— 

" Kv ejTch eerddorioQ 
Be ■yberw Seon 
Nea'r dierreia i rin 
Ymordei Uffin 
Ymhoroedd Gododin.'* 

' Or, '' who caused the stream of blood.** 

^ Gwenddoleu ap Ceidiaw is recorded in the Triads as the head of 
one of the three ** teulu diwair,** or faithful tribes of the Isle of Bri- 
tain, because his men maintained the war for six weeks after he was 
slain in the battle of Arderydd, A.D. 577. He is also joined with 
pynvar and Urien, upder the title of the three " tarw cad '* or bulls 
of battle, on account of their impetuosity in rushing upon the enemy • 



Sad it is for me, after all our toil, 770 

To suffer the pang of death through indiscretion; 
And doubly grievous and sad for me to see 
Our men falling headlong to the ground,^ 
Breathing the lengthened sigh, and covered with 

After the strenuous warriors have extended their 
country's bounds, 775 

Rhuvawn' and Gwgawn,' Qwiawn' and Gwly- 

Men at their post most gallant, valiant in difficul- 
May their souls, now that their conflict is ended,^ 
Be received into the heavenly region, the abode of 

1 " Pen o draed f * from head to foot. Not, as Davies translates 
it, " from the highest to the lowest,** as is evident from a similar 
phrase in Cynddelw, (Myy. Arch. vol. L p. 220.) 

" Yd kwytynt pennawr penn o draed }*' 

where tlie word ''pennawr** refers to one particular rank, if not to 
an individual. 

3 Soo line 344. 

3 See line 324. 

* See line 836. 

8 Lit. « after their conflict.*' 


Tres repelled the foe through' a pool of gore, 780 

• . . ■ • 

And slaughtered like a hero such as asked no 
quarter, ' 

With a sling and a spear ;^ — he flung off his glass 

Oontaining the mead/ and in defence of his sove- 
reignty overthrew an army ; 

His counsel always prevailed, and the multitude 
would not speak before him, ^ 

Whilst those that were cowards were not left alive, 

Before the onset of his battle-axes,* and his shar- 
pened sword/ 7m 

And where his blue banner was seen to wave/ 


1 « Xra;** ** whilst the gory pool couUnued to fill.' 

2 <*ErohyD;** al. '^echyn/* "and slew them like a hero; thejr 
were not saved.'* 

3 Or, ** he darted with the spear/* or, ** they wore prostrated with 
the spear.** 

* *' A medd,** with the mead. He abandoned the social banquet, 
era life of luxury, at the call of public duty. 

s Al. *' Is there a place where the people do not relate the great- 
ness of his counsel ?** 

^ ** BwylUadau,** (i. e. bwyelliadau) the strokes of his battle-axe. 
Another version gives '' bwyll yaddeu,** which may be rendered, 
** Pwyll assaulted.** 

'* With a nuh Pwyll made the Msaalt.**. 

V ** Lliveit handit ;** which were sharpened. 

* Al. '* Where his sounding blade was seen.' 




There was a reinforcement of ^ troops, 

A supply of penetrating weapons, 

And a host of men in the vanguard, 790 

Presenting a menacing front; 

In the days of strenuous exertion, 

In the eager conflict, 

They displayed their valour. 

After the intoxication, 7»5 

When they drank the mead, 

Not one was spared. 

Though Gorwylam 

Was awhile successful, 

When the retort was made, it broke the charge 

Of the horses and men, by fate decreed. 801 

When the host of Pryder ' arrives, 

^ Or, *' mftintenance for.'* 

' There were two perBons who bore this name in the sixlli century, 
tlie one was Prydori tlio son of Dolor, chief of the people of Deivyr 
and nrynolchy and was distingninhod witli Tinwaod and Rliineri, 
under the epithet of tlie tliree strong cripples of the isle of Britain : 

"Tri Gwrddvaglawg ynyi Prydain; Rhineri mab Tttn^wnj t Thinwaed 
Vaglawg ; a Phryderi mab Doler Deirr a Bryneich." (Triad, 7^) 

The other was Pryderi, the son of Pwyll Pen Annwn, a chieftain of 
Dy vcd, which counfry is by Lewis Glyn Cothi called " Gwlad Pry- 
deri;" and by Davydd ab Gwilym, *« pryderi dir." He is styled one 
of the three strong swineherds of Britain, having tended the swinu 


J90 ^^^ GODODIN. 

I anxiously count ^ the bands, 

Eleven complete battalions ; 

There is now a precipitate flight' 806 

Along the road of lamentation. 

Affectionately have I deplored,' 

Dearly have I loved, 

The illustrious dweller of the wood,^ 

And the men of Argoed,^ 810 

of Pendaran his foster fiither, during the absence of his fiither in the 
unknown worid. 

" Tri Gwrddveichiad ynys Prydain; cvnU? vu Pryderi yah Pwyll Pendanui 
Dyvedf a getwia voch ei dad tra yttoedd vn Annwn ; ac yng nglyn Cwch yn 
Einl)tA y cetwU eve wynt" See, (Triad, lOl.) 

In the Tale of Math Mathonwy, he is said to hare been buried at 
Maen Tyriawg, near Ffestiniog. We may therefore presume that 
the Englynion y Beddau refer to the other in the following passage ; 

" Tn AbergcnoU y mae Bet Pryderi 
Yn y tenttt tonneu tir." 

In Abenenoli is the graTe of Prvderi, 
Where the waves beat against tne shore. 

A saying of Pryderi has been thus recorded ; — 

*' Hast thou heard the eaying of Pryderi, 


The wisest person in counselling 7 

There is no wisdom like silence.*' (lolo MSS. p. 661.) 

1 « Pryderaf,^* I am anxious about; a word suggested by the 
name of the chiet 

''^ A result brought about by the arrival of Pryderi*s troops. 

3 « Have I been afflicted.'* 

^ <*Celaig;** from cely the root also of Celtiaid and Celyddon. 

A There were two territories of this name. Argoed Derwenuydd, 
(Derwent wood apparently,) and Argoed Calchvynydd, *' between 
the river Tren and the river Tain, that is the river of London.** 
(lolo M3S. p. 476.) One of them, the former probably, was the 
patrimony of Llywarch Hen. 

** Cyn bum cain vaglawg, bum cyfes eiriawg, 

Ceinvygir ni eres { 

Gwyr Argoed eirioed a'm porthes*" (Elegy on Old Age.) 


Accustomed, in the open plain, ^ 

To marshal their troops. 

For the benefit of the chiefs, the lord of the war ^ 

Laid upon roiigh' boards, 

Midst a deluge of grief, 816 

The viands for the banquet. 

Where they caroused together; — ^he conducted us 

to a bright^ fire. 
And to a carpet of white and fresh ' hide. 

Geraint,^ from the South, did raise a shout, 

Before I appeired with eratehet, I wm eloquent in my complaint, 
It will be extulledf what b not wonderful — » 

lite men of Argoed have ever aupported me ! 

1 *' Gwal/* " The Cymmry appropriated this name to regions 
that were cultivated and had fixed inhabitancy, as opposed to the 
wilds, or tlie unsettled residences of the Celtiaid, Celyddon, 
Gwyddyl, Gwyddelod, Y^gotiaid, and Ysgodogion; which are 
terms descriptive of such tribes as lived by hunting and tending 
their flocks.** (Dr. Pughe, sub. voce.) Both descriptions of persons 
arc thus included in the Dard*s affectionate r^ret AL " accus- 
tomcd at the rampart." 

' "Pwys;*' pressure or weight. Or perhaps "arlwydd pwys" 
means ** the legitimate lord,** in opposition to usurpers, just as a 
wedded wife is styled " gwraig bwys,^ as distinguished troia a con- 

' " Dllyvu}'* or perhaps ** dylyvn," smooth. 

* Al. " rekindled.** » " Gosgfoyw,*' ratiier treBh. 

' Geraint, the son of Erbin, was prince of Dy vnaint, (Devon) and 
one of the three owners of fleets of tiie Isle of Britain, each fleet con* 
sisting of 120 ships, and each ship being manned by 120 persons. 




'Tri Llynghetawg vnyi Prydain } Oernint mab Rrbin } Owenwynwyn mab 
r ; a Mardi mab Meirehion i a chweugaln Uong gan bob un o'r Llynghea* 
on, a chweugain Uongwyr ymbob Uong." (Triaa 68, Third aeries.) 

192 '^^^ GODODIN. 

And on the white water^ was his buckler pierced.' 
Lord of the spear, a gentle lord! 821 

The praise of mountain and sea 
Will he render our youth, even thou, Geraint, 

wilt render them. 
Who hast been a generous commander. 


Instantaneously is his fame wafted on high; 825 
His anchors^ from the scene of action^ cannot be 

Unflinching eagle ^ of the forward heroes, 
He bore the toil, and brilliant was his zeal ; 

Llywarch Hen wrote an Elegy upon Qeraint, in which the place of 
his death is thus mentioned ; — 

'* Yn Uongborth ;r ll&a Oeraint, 
Gwr dewr o goettir Djmaint, 
Wyntwy yn Uadd gyd a't Ueddaint." 

At Uongborth was Oeraint slain, 

A strenuous warrior from the woodland of Dyvnaint, 

Slaughtering his foes as he lelL 

Qeraint ab Erbin was the grandfather of Aneurin, but as he died in 
king Arthur*8 time, A.D. 530, we can hardly identify him with the 
Geraint of the text, who probably was a son, or some other relation, 
that had inherited his fleet. 

1 " Llwch gwyn," probably *• Yandiiara,** Gwyn Dwr, or White 
Water, which seems to have been one of the old designations of a 
river in Renfrewshire. (Sec Caledonia Jtoatana, p. H3.) Adar y 
y llwch gwyn, the birds of the white lake, is a mythological epithet 
for vultures. Their history is recorded in the lolo MSS. p. 600. 

2 Al. ** There was a white badge on his shield.'* 

3 Lit. *' his anchor." 

* *'Cyman,** ** cydvan,** (i. e. cyd man,) the place of gathering. 
Al. *' his broken anchor.** 
' It is not improbable that the eagle was charged on Uerainf s 


The fleetest coursers he outstripped in war, 

But was quite a lamb ^ when the wine from the 
goblet flowed. 830 

Ere he reached the grassy tomb, and his cheeks 
became pale in death,' 

He presided over the banquet of mead, and ho- 
noured it with the generous hom.^ 


Ruin * he brought upon every fair region, * 
And a fettering valour he displayed ; ^ 

standard, for it is also frequently alluded to in Llywarch Hen^s 
Elegy— ^. g. 

" Oedd re redaint dan vorddwyd Gertint, 

OarhirioB, grawn odew, 

Rhuddion, rhuthr eryron glew." 

Under the thigh of Oeraint were fleet runnen, 

With long hams, fattened with com f 

They were red ones} their aesault was like the bold eaglet. 

» *' Lledvegin," an animal partly roared in a domestio way. We 
linvo cboson tho lamb as being one of the animals most commonly 
reared in this manner. NevertbcletB, a previous wildness, with re- 
ference to the military aspect of his character, might be intended to 
be conveyed in this epithet. 

" Lledvegyn is a ktne, or what shall be tamed in a honse ; namely, 
such as a £Dtwn, or a fox, or a wild beast similar to those.** (\Velflh 

3 *< Rhan/* see lines 40 and 782. 

3 Or, <* Ho presided over tho feast, pouring from the horn the 
splendid mead.** So Cynddelw, — 

*' Baran lew llew lloegjr oual 

lieduegin gwin gwyrt uaaL'* (Myv. Arch. v. i. p. S25J 

* As the natural consequence of military operations. 

' '* Llawr llaned/* ground of smooth surface. Al. *' llanwed,** 
every region was filled with slaughter. 

««*Hual amhaval/' like a fetter. "Avneued** from «avn,*' 
courage* n 8 


The front of his shield was pierced. 835 

Caso Hir,^ when roused to anger, 

Defended BhuYoniawg.' 

A second time they' challenged, * and were crushed 

By the warlike steeds with gory trappings. 

I lis martial nobles'^ formed a firm array, 840 

And the field was reddened, when he was greatly 

affronted ; 
Severe in the conflict, with blades he slaughtered. 
And sad news' from the war he brought, 

^ The sound of the name, in connection with the word '<hual/* 
in a former line, makes it very probable that the hero mentioned 
was of the tribe of Caswallon Law Hir, celebrated as one of the 
" hualogion deulu '* of the Isle of Britain, called so because the 
men bound themselves together with the **hualau,** or fetters of 
their horses^ to sustain the attack of Serigi AVyddel, whom Cas- 
wallon slew with his own hand, when ho drove the Irish out of 

'* Tri hualogion teulu Y. P. Teulu Caswallon Llawbir a ddodasant hualeu 
eu Ifeirch ar eu traed pob deu o naddynt with ymladd a Serigi Wyddel yng 
Cerrig y Gwyddyl y Blon. a theulu llhiwallon mab Uryeu yn ymladd ar 
Sacson, a theulu Uelyn o Leyn yn ymladd ag Etwyn ym wryn Cencu yn 
Uhos.** (Triad 4*J, firvt ttrics. ) 

Caswallon Law Ilir was the son of Einion Yrth ab Cunedda 
Wledig, king of Qododin. lie succeeded to the sovereignty of North 
Wales, A.D. 443, and is said' to hav6 died in 517. There was u 
( 'as son of Soldi, who was one of the heroes of ArthurVt Court. 

' A huniU*ud In the uilddlo part of North Wulus, so oullud from 
Uhuvon son of Cunedda Wledig, whose iuhoritanoe It was. 

^ Probably the enemy. 

^ Or, " the shont was raised.*' 

> Cadvorioa, i. e. oad-vawrion; or, it may be, more literally, cad- 
vorion, " martial ants,'* in reference to then: activity. 

« Lit. ♦'warning." 



Which he wove^ into a song for the calends of 

Adan,' the son of Ervai, there did pierce, 846 

Adan pierced the haughty boar ; 
Even ho, who was like a dame, a virgin, and a 

And when the youth thus possessed the properties 

of a king,^ 
He, stained with blood, brought deliverance to 

Ere the turf was laid upon the gentle face 850 

Of the generous dead ; but now undisturbed 
In regard to fame and gain, he reposes in the grave. 


1 Lit. ** prepared. 

' The popular air ** Nos Galan" is supposed to have been a re- 
lic of the musical entertainments of this season. 

' A chieftain of Mona, the land that enjoyed <* the valour of £r- 
vei ;" see his Elegy by Taliesin apud Myv. Arch. v. i. p. 70. Ervei 
WAS nlflo oiiKagcd in the battle of Cattraeth; — 

** Red speared was Urvei before the lord of Eiddin." (Gorch. Mael.) 

** That is, in domestic lifo he was as refined as a lady, modest as a 
virgin, whilst in war he was brave and high minded. 

^The word ** teyrn " reminds us of a line which countenances the 
theory we suggested relative to the expression *' edym diedym/* 
in stanza xv. bnt which we omitted to mention in its proper place. 
It occurs in the " Elegy on Cunedda.** (Myv. Arch. i. p. 71.) as 

follows ; — 

" Rhftg mab edem cyn edpm nnftelew.*' 

Before the ton of Edeym ere hit kingdom beesme fearful.** 

196 '^^^ aoDODiN. 

Namely, Garthwys Hir/ from the land of Bhuvon- 


The garment of Tinogad,' which was of divers 

Made of the speckled skins of young wolves, 855 
His jerks and starts and juggling motion, 
I fain would lampoon, they were lampooned by his 

eight slaves.^ 
When thy father went out to hunt, 
With his pole upon his shoulder, and his provisions 

in his hand, B50 

He would call to his dogs that were of equal size, 
Catch it, catch it — seize it, seize it — ^bring it, bring it; 

^ This warrior was probably of the family of Urien Rbeged, for 
a grandson of his, the celebrated Kentigem, was called Cyndeym 
Garthwys. Arthwys son of Ceneu ab Coel was too early for the 
battle of Gattraeth. 

' Tinogad was the son of Cynan Qarwyn, and was celebrated for 
his swift steed, named Cethin. 

" Tri nuurchlwyth yny* Prydain— ar ail marchlwyth adue Coraann March 
meibion Eliffer gocgortuawr, a due Gwr^ a Pheredur araaw, ac nys gordiued* 
awd neb namyn Dinogat Tab Kynan Garwyn yar y Kethin kyvlym ac aruidi- 
awt ae aglot a gauaa yr bynny hyd hediw." V"iAd 11, second scries.) 

3 The possession of slaves, whether of native origin, or derived 
from the custom of the Romans, prevailed to some extent among tlie 
Britons of the fifth and sixth century, and seems to have denoted a 
certain degree of power on the part of the owners. Taliesin the 
Druid boasts that he had received '* a host of slaves,** (torof keith) 
from his royal patron Cunedda Wledig. (My v. Arch. v. i. p. 71.) 


He would kill a fish in his coracle, 

Even as a princely lion in hie fury » kills his prey; 

When thy father climbed up the mountain, 

He brought back the head^ of a roebuck,^ the head 

of a wild boar, the head of a stag, 866 

The head of a grey moor hen from the hill, 

The head of a fish from the falls of the Derwent ; * 

As many as thy father could reach with his flesh 

Of wild boars, lions, and foxes,^ 

It was certain death to them all,^ unless they 

proved too nimble. 870 

I '' Bar/* al. "ban/* on the heights. 

' Or, the chief, the best 

' Many places in Wales bear the name of this animal, where it 
appears to liave been common in ancient times, such as '* Bryn yr 
iwrch/* " Ffjrnon yr iwrch,*' and the lilce. Hunting the roebudc is 
recognised in the Welsh Laws, and is called one of the three cry 
hunts (helva ddolev.) 

" Mi adaen iwrch er nas daliwyv." (Adage*) 
I know a roebuck, though I may not cateh him. 

* '^Derwenydd;*' Derventio, the river Derwent in Cumberland. 

'^ '* Liewyn a Ilwyvcin.'* It is difficult to ascertain the particular 
animals which these terms respectively represent. The former might 
denote a young lion, a white lion, or any beast in general to whose 
eating faculties the word lletaa would be applicable. The latter 
might signify any animal whose haunts were the elm forests, or 
whose property was to Uyvu or to lick, as does a dog. The fox be* 
ing namotl llwynog from llw^ a forest, and the forests in the North 
being cliicfly of oltn, It \n not unlikely but that the said animal was 
frequently called llwyvain in that part of the country when the 
Bard >vix>tc, though it is not known now by that name. It is remark- 
able that both terms also signify certain kinds of wood. The former 
the herb orach, the latter the elm. > Al. **None would escape.* 

X98 '^^^ GODODIN. 


Were he to narrow^ my dominions through extor- 

The arrival of no enemy would prove to me more 

The man has not been nursed who could be more 
festive in the hall 

Than he, or steadier in the field of battle. 874 

On the ford of Penclwyd ^ Pennant were his steeds ; 

Far spread was his fame, compact was his armour; 

And ere the long grass covered him beneath the sod, 

He, the only son of Morarch, ^ poured out the horns 
of mead. 

1 ** Angqr?rwng;** lit. " were he to place me without an inter- 
vening space," that is, were he to straiten me on every side. 

) When any thing is taken away or used, or when any thing is 
done, the owner not knowing it, or without asking his leave, it is 
called Anghyvarch, *' Anghyvarchwyr,** extortioners. W.Salesbury, 
1 Cor. V. 

s Lit. ** There would not come, there would not be to me, one more 

* The head of the river Clyde in Sootland. 

^ *' Veruarch.** Moraoh Morvran is often mentioned by the poets 
on account of his celebrated banquet. 

" Cygleu yn If adawr gawr vawr vusui 
A garw dditgyr gwyr a gwyth erwan ; 
Ac TmgynnuU, am drull, am dramwyan, 
Mai y DU yn Maogur am ongyr dan } 
Pan wnaeu dau deym uch cyrn cyvrdan, 
Pan vu gyveddach M orach Morrran.*' 

In Maelor the great, the hastening about was heard, 

And the dreadful shrieks of men with gashing wounds in pain ; 

And together thronging to seek a cure, round and round they strayed , 



I saw the array from the highland of Adoeii, 
Carrying the Bacrifice to the omen fire; ^ 880 

I saw the two, ^ who from their station quickly and 

heavily fell ; 
By the commands of Nwython, greatly were they 

I saw the warriors, who had made the great breach, 

approaching with the dawn,' 
And the head of Dyvnwal Vrych by ravens de- 


Gododiuj in respect of thee will I demand,^ 885 
In the presence ^ of a hundred that are named * 
with deeds of valour. 

As it WM in Bangor for the fire of the brunt of epeMrti 

When over homi two princes otased dieeordf 

While in the btnqnet of Morsch Morrran. (Owaln Cyveiliog.) 

1 This stanza evidently reten to the same transaction as that which 
is recorded in the Ixxxth, Uiough the details are somewhat differ- 
ently described. 

' One of these, we may presume, was Dyvnwal Vrych. 

3 The whole line may be thus translated ; 

*' I Mw the men, who with the dawn, dug the deep pit.'* Ai. "I taw at 
dawn a great breach made in the wall at Adoen.*' 

* See stansa Hi. 
» '« Vngwydd." 
« «* Yr enwyd." 

200 '^^^ OODODIN. 

And of Gwarthan the son of Dwy wau, * of gallant 

Let Tre Essyd be ours in one entire dale.^ 
Since the stabbing of the delight of the bulwark of 

Since Aneurin was under ground,' 890 

My Toice has not been divorced from Oododin. 


Echo speaks of the formidable^ and dragon-like^ 

And of the fair game, ^ which was played in front of 

the unclaimed course of Gododin. 
Profusely did he bring a supply ^ of wine into the 

tents, for the benefit of the natives,^ 
In the season of the storm, as long as it trickled 

from the vessels, 805 

^ Gwarthan the son of Dunawd by Dwy we his wife, '* who was 
slain by the pagan Saxons in their wars in the north.'* (lolo 
MSB. p. 556.) 

2 Or, " let it be forcibly seized in one entire region.** 

' An allusion to his incarceration, see lines 440, 445. 

^ Oardith; i. e.garw deith (or teithi.) 

A Tithragon; i. e. teith-dragon. ^ A pitched battle. 

** Gwr yn gware a Lloegyrwys." (Cjmddciw.) 
A man playing with the Lloegriana. 
' Or, " did he bring and supply." * Tymyr;'* native place. 


And the army, a well nourished host, continued to 

drop in. 
A splendid troop of warriors, successful against a 

hundred men^ 
Is led from Dindoyydd in Dyvneint.^ 
Before Doleu ' in battle, worn out were the shields, 

and battered the helmets. 

He brought ruin upon every fair region,' 900 

And a fettering valour he displayed ; 
The front of his shield was pierced; 
Case Hir, arrayed in pomp,^ 
Protected Bhuvoniawg. 

A second time were they wounded,^ and crushed 
By his warlike steeds, and gore-stained were their 
coffins/ 006 

Always immoveable, always liberal of aid. 
Would be his gallant nobles, when roused to anger. 

1 " Dy vnuyt ;** tee also stanza, xWiii. 

' One of the officers appointed to the command of Geraint^i fleet. 
> This stanza, with the exception of a few words, is the same with 
the Izxxiz. 

* Or •* valiantly/ 

* " Gwelydeint," from "gwelyd," a wound; or "gwelyddcint,'* 
they took repose in the grave. 

* At. ^* with the gory trappings/* as in the other stanza. 


202 ^^^ GODODIN. 

Severe in the conflict, with blades • he slaugh- 
tered ; 

And agonising news from the war he brought, dlO 

Which he wove into a hundred songs for the ca- 
lends of January. 

Adan ^ the son of Urvei there did pierce, 

Adan^ pierced the haughty boar, 

Even he who was like Urien,' a maid, and a hero. 

And as the youth was thus endowed with the pro- 
perties of a king, 915 

Lord of Owynedd, and of the blood of Oilydd,^ he 

proved our deliverer ; 

Ere the turf was laid upon the face of the generous 

Wisely did he seek the field, with praise and high 
sounding fame : 

The grave of Gorthyn Hir* is seen* from the high- 
lands of Bhuvoniawg. 

1 Al. " a dau,*' the two sons, and two haughty boars. 
» Al. * * riein," a lady. 

* Cilydd was the son of CSelyddon Wledig, and father of Cilhwch 
who is the hero of an ancient dramatic tale of a singular character. 

* In a fbrmer stanza he is called Garth wys Hir. 

* '* Nod;** is a conspicuous mark. 



On account of the piercing of the skilful and most 

learned man,^ 920 

On account of the fair corpse, which fell prostrate 

upon the ground, 
Thrice six officers judged the atrocious deed* at the 

hour of mattins, 
And Morien lifted up again his ancient lance, 
And, roaring, stretched out ^ death 
Towards the warriors, the Gwyddyl,* and the Pry- 

dyn ;* 925 

Whilst towards the lovely, slender, blood-stained 

body of Gwen, 
Sighed Gwenabwy, the only son of Gwen. 

On account of the afflicting ^ of the skilful and most 
learned man " 

1 Seo stanza xl. 

' '* Dyli,** condition or impulse. 

' " Yracden ;** from *' brag," a sprouting out, and " ten/* stretclied. 

« The Irish. 

s The inhabitants of Scotland. 

*' Hon a oreag^ 

f loU Loegr a Phrydyn. ' * (TaliesinO 

She will conquer 

All England and Scotland. 

" Giniaw/* from " cyni," afflction. 

204 ^^^ QODODIN. 

Grievously and deeply, when he fell prostrate upon 

the ground. 
The banner was pompously ^ unforled, and borne by 

a man in the flank;' 930 


A tumultuous scene was beheld' in Eiddin, and 

on the battle field. 
The grasp of his hand performed deeds of valour 
Upon the Oynt,* the Gwyddyl, and the Prydyn. 
He who meddles with the mane of a wolf, without 

a club 
In his hand, will have it gorgeously emblazoned 

on his robe. 936 

Fain would I sing, — ^' would that Morien had not 

I sigh for Gwenabwy, the son of Gwen.* 

1 ** Cemp," L e. " camp/* a feat, surpaaiingly. 

>0r, "at bis Bide.** 

3 Al. ''ArreiUi;** i. e. «a rhaith;'* <'the sentence of the law 
was that they should search;** or "the Jury searched.** Al. "in 
various directions they searched.'* 

^ Probably the Cantii or people of Kent 

* If the stanza, however, is not properly completed here, we may 
assign the sigh to Gwenabwy himself, in reference probably to his 
fiftther, as in the preceding stanza. 


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